Changing the Face of Southern Appalachia Urban Planning in Southwest Virginia and East Tennessee, 1890- 1929

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The period from 1890 to 1929 was a transitionary interlude for southern Appalachia. Capitalistic development lifted pre-industrial natives from a simple agrarian-based existence and set them down in industrial villages and towns. American and European investors exploited natural and human resources, but they also initiated urban planning and regional development which, in some instances, set the tone for subsequent growth that elevated the standard of living for the local people. Three separate planning ventures at Stonega, Virginia; Kingsport, Tennessee; and Happy Valley, Tennessee reveal striking contrasts in objectives as well as the longterm consequences.