This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. We previously demonstrated endocytosis of KCa2.3 is caveolin-1-, dynamin II- and Rab5-dependent. KCa2.3 then enters Rab35/EPI64C- and RME-1-containing recycling endosomes and is returned to the plasma membrane (PM). Herein, we report on the mechanism by which KCa2.3 is inserted into the PM during recycling and following exit from the Golgi. We demonstrate KCa2.3 colocalizes with SNAP-23 and Syntaxin-4 in the PM of HEK and endothelial cells by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. We further show KCa2.3 can be co-immunoprecipitated with SNAP-23 and Syntaxin-4. Overexpression of either Syntaxin-4 or SNAP-23 increased PM expression of KCa2.3, whereas shRNA-mediated knockdown of these SNARE proteins significantly decreased PM KCa2.3 expression, as assessed by cell surface biotinylation. Whole-cell patch clamp studies confirmed knockdown of SNAP-23 significantly decreased the apamin sensitive, KCa2.3 current. Using standard biotinylation/stripping methods, we demonstrate shRNA mediated knockdown of SNAP-23 inhibits recycling of KCa2.3 following endocytosis, whereas scrambled shRNA had no effect. Finally, using biotin ligase acceptor peptide (BLAP)-tagged KCa2.3, coupled with ER-resident biotin ligase (BirA), channels could be biotinylated in the ER after which we evaluated their rate of insertion into the PM following Golgi exit. We demonstrate knockdown of SNAP-23 significantly slows the rate of Golgi to PM delivery of KCa2.3. The inhibition of both recycling and PM delivery of newly synthesized KCa2.3 channels likely accounts for the decreased PM expression observed following knockdown of these SNARE proteins. In total, our results suggest insertion of KCa2.3 into the PM depends upon the SNARE proteins, Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23.
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Bertuccio, Claudia A.; Wang, Tony T.; Hamilton, Kirk L.; Rodriguez-Gil, Diego J.; Condliffe, Steven B.; and Devor, Daniel C.. 2018. Plasma Membrane Insertion of KCa2.3 (SK3) is Dependent Upon the SNARE Proteins, Syntaxin-4 and SNAP23. PLoS ONE. Vol.13(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196717 PMID: 29768434