Honors Program

University Honors, [Honors-in-Discipline (Choose below)]

Date of Award


Thesis Professor(s)

Andrea Clements

Thesis Professor Department


Thesis Reader(s)

William Clark


A sample of 1,031 pregnant women from five prenatal practices participated in Tennessee Intervention for Pregnant Smokers (TIPS), an expanded 5A’s (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) program. Stress, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and disordered eating were hypothesized to differ among three groups: pregnant women who never smoked, pregnant women who smoked but quit prior to birth, and pregnant women who smoked and did not quit prior to birth. Smokers who quit were lower in stress and higher in self-esteem than those who did not quit. Non-smokers were lowest in stress and depression, and highest in self-esteem. These findings may lead to improved intervention programs and reduction of adverse health effects in children born to mothers who smoke.


East Tennessee State University

Document Type

Honors Thesis - Withheld

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