Published under exclusive license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Macrophage fusion leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells is a hallmark of chronic inflammation. Several membrane proteins have been implicated in mediating cell- cell attachment during fusion, but their binding partners remain unknown. Recently, we demonstrated that interleukin-4 (IL-4)- induced fusion of mouse macrophages depends on the integrin macrophage antigen 1 (Mac-1). Surprisingly, the genetic deficiency of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), an established ligand of Mac-1, did not impair macrophage fusion, suggesting the involvement of other counter-receptors. Here, using various approaches, including signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) knockdown, recombinant proteins, adhesion and fusion assays, biolayer interferometry, and peptide libraries, we show that SIRPα, which, similar to ICAM-1, belongs to the Ig superfamily and has previously been implicated in cell fusion, interacts with Mac-1. The following results support the conclusion that SIRPα is a ligand of Mac-1: (a) recombinant ectodomain of SIRPα supports adhesion of Mac-1-expressing cells; (b) Mac-1-SIRPα interaction is mediated through the ligand-binding αMI-domain of Mac-1; (c) recognition of SIRPα by the αMIdomain conforms to general principles governing binding of Mac-1 to many of its ligands; (d) SIRPα reportedly binds CD47; however, anti-CD47 function-blocking mAb produced only a limited inhibition of macrophage adhesion to SIRPα; and (e) co-culturing of SIRPα- and Mac-1-expressing HEK293 cells resulted in the formation of multinucleated cells. Taken together, these results identify SIRPα as a counter-receptor for Mac-1 and suggest that the Mac-1-SIRPα interaction may be involved in macrophage fusion.
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Podolnikova, Nataly P.; Hlavackova, Marketa; Wu, Yifei; Yakubenko, Valentin P.; Faust, James; Balabiyev, Arnat; Wang, Xu; and Ugarova, Tatiana P.. 2019. Interaction Between the Integrin Mac-1 and Signal Regulatory Protein α (SIRPα) Mediates Fusion in Heterologous Cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Vol.294(19). 7833-7849. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.006314 PMID: 30910815 ISSN: 0021-9258