Social Support for Physical Activity for High Schoolers in Rural Southern Appalachia

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Objective: Social support for physical activity (PA) has been shown to enhance PA levels in adolescents. Although social support has been examined extensively in the literature, less is known about the role of social support for PA for high school adolescents in rural southern Appalachia. PA is important because adolescent obesity is greater in Appalachia than in the rest of the United States. Methods: This was a qualitative secondary analysis of focus groups conducted in 2013-2014 among parents, teachers, and high school students (N = 77) in 6 counties across rural southern Appalachia. Beets' typology of social support was used to categorize themes. Results: Participants discussed instrumental supports, including providing transportation and paying fees, enrolling child in recreation/sports, and providing PA equipment at home. Performing PA with adolescents and modeling, watching/supervising, and prioritizing PA were identified as conditional supports. Several motivational supports were identified: encouragement, force, and the admiration of people who are active. Participants also identified key informational supports, including discussing the importance/health benefits of PA, how to be physically active, and general advice/information. Barriers to PA engagement (eg, body image issues, bullying, competitive nature of PA opportunities) and the role of referent groups (eg, family, peers, teachers) emerged as important concepts in the discussion. Conclusion This study identifies opportunities and practical ways for families and schools to provide, build, and strengthen supports for PA among adolescents in rural Appalachia.