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The Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) principal oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1) is a member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor (TNFR) superfamily with constitutive activity. LMP1 shares many features with Pathogen Recognition Receptors (PRRs), including the use of TRAFs, adaptors, and kinase cascades, for signal transduction leading to the activation of NFκB, AP1, and Akt, as well as a subset of IRFs and likely the master antioxidative transcription factor NRF2, which we have gradually added to the list. In recent years, we have discovered the Linear UBiquitin Assembly Complex (LUBAC), the adaptor protein LIMD1, and the ubiquitin sensor and signaling hub p62, as novel components of LMP1 signalosome. Functionally, LMP1 is a pleiotropic factor that reprograms, balances, and perturbs a large spectrum of cellular mechanisms, including the ubiquitin machinery, metabolism, epigenetics, DNA damage response, extracellular vehicles, immune defenses, and telomere elongation, to promote oncogenic transformation, cell proliferation and survival, anchorage‐independent cell growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis and invasion, as well as the development of the tumor microenvironment. We have recently shown that LMP1 induces p62‐mediated selective autophagy in EBV latency, at least by contributing to the induction of p62 expression, and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. We have also been collecting evidence supporting the hypothesis that LMP1 activates the Keap1‐NRF2 pathway, which serves as the key antioxidative defense mechanism. Last but not least, our preliminary data shows that LMP1 is associated with the deregulation of cGAS‐STING DNA sensing pathway in EBV latency. A comprehensive understanding of the LMP1 signaling landscape is essential for identifying potential targets for the development of novel strategies towards targeted therapeutic applications.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.