A Model for Cross-Cultural Translation and Adaptation of Speech-Language Pathology Assessment Measures: Application to the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (Focus©)

Document Type


Publication Date



Purpose: In the absence of a gold standard, this study illustrates the process involved in the cross-cultural translation and adaptation of the FOCUS© and its shortened version, FOCUS-34© (the Parent Form and Instruction Sheet, as well as the Clinician Form and Instruction Sheet), while also determining the social validity and clinical applicability of the translated measure. The target language used as example was Afrikaans, one of the 11 official languages of South Africa. Method: A two-phase cross-cultural translation model was employed in which Phase 1 (comprising a six-step blind back-translation procedure) was sequentially followed by Phase 2 (social validation and clinical applicability of the measure, using focus groups with stakeholders). Result: The extensive process followed in Phase 1 resulted in a clear and appropriate translation acceptable to both stakeholder groups (parents and speech-language pathologists). Both groups questioned the meaning of certain concepts, explored cultural differences and requested the extension of some items. Parents also shared their emotional reactions towards assessment, while therapists focussed on editorial changes to the measures. Conclusion: A framework is proposed for cross-cultural translation and adaptation of assessment measures with suitability in the speech-language pathology discipline.