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Hyperactivation of PARP1 is known to be a major cause of necrotic cell death by depleting NAD+/ATP pools during Ca2+ overload which is associated with many ischemic diseases. However, little is known about how PARP1 hyperactivity is regulated during calcium overload. In this study we show that ATR kinase, well known for its role in DNA damage responses, suppresses ionomycin, glutamate, or quinolinic acid-induced necrotic death of cells including SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. We found that the inhibition of necrosis requires the kinase activity of ATR. Specifically, ATR binds to and phosphorylates PARP1 at Ser179 after the ionophore treatments. This site-specific phosphorylation inactivates PARP1, inhibiting ionophore-induced necrosis. Strikingly, all of this occurs in the absence of detectable DNA damage and signaling up to 8 hours after ionophore treatment. Furthermore, little AIF was released from mitochondria/cytoplasm for nuclear import, supporting the necrotic type of cell death in the early period of the treatments. Our results reveal a novel ATR-mediated anti-necrotic mechanism in the cellular stress response to calcium influx without DNA damage signaling.

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This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.© 2021 The Authors. The FASEB Journal published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License