Co-rumination With Parents and Friends: Gender-Specific Links to Adolescent Internalizing Symptoms

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Co-rumination is a nuanced emotion socialization process that occurs with parents and friends during adolescence. Although co-ruminating builds closeness with others, it corresponds to increased internalizing symptoms, particularly for adolescent girls. The present study explored how specific features of co-rumination vary by relational context (parents, friends) and adolescent gender. These features were also examined in relation to adolescent internalizing symptoms, with adolescent gender as a potential moderator. Thirty adolescents (13–18 years old; 60% female, 40% male) participated in separate discourse tasks with their parent and their same-gender close friend. Co-rumination was observed during these conversations, and adolescents reported their internalizing symptoms. Features of co-rumination varied by relational context and adolescent gender, with unique links to adolescent internalizing symptoms. This study extends prior research by providing a fine-grained analysis of how co-rumination corresponds to internalizing symptoms across two relational contexts.