Title

Increased Prevalence of Hypertension in Ghana: New 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Hypertension Association Hypertension Guidelines Application

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

12-1-2020

Description

Background We estimated the prevalence and socio-demographic risk factors of hypertension among Ghanaian adults as per the Joint National Committee 7 and the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Hypertension Association hypertension thresholds used for diagnosis and treatment. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 12 151 adults (8295 females and 3856 males) aged 18 years or older who participated in the 2014 Ghana Demographic and health Survey. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to obtain risk factors associated with hypertension as per both guidelines. Results Overall, 30.43% (n = 3698) and 11.48% (n = 1395) respondents had hypertension as per the 2017 ACC/AHA and JNC7 guidelines, respectively. The following factors were significant according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline: 55-64 years (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 6.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.70-8.77), 45-54 years (aOR = 5.72, 95% CI = 4.70-6.85), 3544 years (aOR = 3.91, 95% CI = 3.33-4.59), and 25-34 years (aOR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.77-2.37) age groups. Males (aOR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.23-1.53), and urban residents (aOR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.05-1.38). All the above risk factors were significant according to the JNC7 guideline too. Factors positively associated with only the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline included: middle income (aOR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.02-1.42) and richest (aOR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.10-1.69) wealth quintiles, whereas manual (aOR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.02-1.86) was positively associated with the JNC7 guidelines only. Conclusions We conclude that adopting the ACC/AHA guidelines would lead to a substantial increase in the prevalence of hypertension among Ghanaian adults, thus, hypertension prevention and control should be prioritized.

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