Live Events and the Sport Customer: A Sport Spectator Quality-Value-Behavior Model

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Global Alliance of Marketing and Management Associations (GAMMA). The purpose of this study was to propose and empirically test a sport spectator behavioral model. The model presented here is a micro-level perspective of value creation in the context of live sporting events. This study used directional hypotheses to compare the influence of different value dimensions on specific customer behaviors in the setting of North American professional sport. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine path coefficients for the hypothesized relationships in the model. Organization-related value propositions were found to be stronger predictors of perceived economic, hedonic, and social value. One exception to this was customer density, which negatively impacted certain value perceptions. The hedonic value was found to have the strongest influence on customer in-role and extra-role behavior. The behavioral model tested here can be used in future studies to examine how sport organizations and their customers can create value in the live event setting and how the roles performed by each stakeholder influence future behavior. Findings suggest there are several actions marketers and managers can take to increase customer perceived value and prompt spectators to attend future events or act as advocates for the organization.