Effects of Employees’ Extra-Role Behaviors on Organizational Performance: An Assessment of Minor League Baseball Team Front Offices

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Global Alliance of Marketing and Management Associations (GAMMA). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of employees’ extra-role behaviors on desired organizational outcomes in sport. An assessment of innovative work behaviors and organizational citizenship behaviors of Minor League Baseball team front office employees was conducted as organizations planned for an upcoming season. An empirical model controlling for extraneous factors was developed and tested. Results revealed organizational citizenship behaviors of front office employees positively affected attendance during the season for Triple-A and Double-A level franchises. No significant effects between employees’ organizational citizenship and team attendance was seen in lower level teams. Employees’ innovative work behaviors were not significantly related to team attendance. The current study indicates that these sport organizations may not be benefitting from the behaviors it celebrates in its employees, namely the extra role behaviors. This study has demonstrated that context specific factors can substantially alter expected employee and organizational behaviors.