GATAD2B-Associated Neurodevelopmental Disorder (GAND): Clinical and Molecular Insights Into a NuRD-Related Disorder

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Purpose: Determination of genotypic/phenotypic features of GATAD2B-associated neurodevelopmental disorder(GAND). Methods: Fifty GAND subjects were evaluated to determine consistentgenotypic/phenotypic features. Immunoprecipitation assays utilizing in vitrotranscription–translation products were used to evaluate GATAD2B missensevariants’ ability to interact with binding partners within the nucleosomeremodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex. Results: Subjects had clinical findings that included macrocephaly,hypotonia, intellectual disability, neonatal feeding issues, polyhydramnios,apraxia of speech, epilepsy, and bicuspid aortic valves. Forty-one novelGATAD2B variants were identified withmultiple variant types (nonsense, truncating frameshift, splice-site variants,deletions, and missense). Seven subjects were identified with missense variantsthat localized within two conserved region domains (CR1 or CR2) of the GATAD2Bprotein. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed several of these missense variantsdisrupted GATAD2B interactions with its NuRD complex binding partners. Conclusions: A consistent GAND phenotype was caused by a range of geneticvariants in GATAD2B that includeloss-of-function and missense subtypes. Missense variants were present inconserved region domains that disrupted assembly of NuRD complex proteins.GAND’s clinical phenotype had substantial clinical overlap with other disordersassociated with the NuRD complex that involve CHD3 and CHD4, with clinicalfeatures of hypotonia, intellectual disability, cardiac defects, childhoodapraxia of speech, and macrocephaly.