An Updated Review on Myocardial Bridging

Document Type


Publication Date



Myocardial bridging is a congenital coronary anomaly with normal epicardial coronary artery taking an intra-myocardial course also described as tunneled artery. The majority of patients with this coronary anomaly are asymptomatic and generally it is a benign condition. However, it is an important cause of myocardial ischemia, which may lead to anginal symptoms, acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrhythmias and rarely sudden cardiac death. There are numerous studies published in the recent past on understanding the pathophysiology, diagnostic and management strategies of myocardial bridging. This review highlights some of the recent updates in the diagnosis and management of patients with myocardial bridging. We discuss the role of various non-invasive and invasive diagnostic methods to evaluate functional significance of bridging. In addition, role of medical therapy such as beta-blockers, percutaneous coronary intervention with stents/bioresorbable scaffolds and surgical unroofing in patients unresponsive to medical therapy is highlighted as well.