Effects of Probiotics on Intestinal Failure–Associated Liver Disease in Adult Patients Receiving Prolonged Parenteral Support: A Tertiary Care Center Experience

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Background: It has been hypothesized that dysbiosis plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of intestinal failure–associated liver disease (IFALD). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of probiotics on IFALD in patients receiving parenteral support, namely home parenteral nutrition (HPN) and home intravenous fluids (HIVFs). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients with intestinal failure who received HPN or HIVF for >2 weeks at our tertiary center between January 2005 and August 2016. We excluded patients <18 years of age, patients with other causes of liver disease, patients who used probiotics for <30 days, patients with <6 months' follow-up, and those who had long-term antibiotic use (>30 days). Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used in this study. Results: A total of 282 patients who received parenteral support were included. Eighty-five percent of our sample received PN. A total of 78 (27.7%) patients used probiotics. The prevalence of IFALD in patients who used probiotics was 35.9% vs 54.4% in patients who did not use probiotics, P =.005. In multivariable analysis, only small-bowel length of 10-90 cm and HPN use showed a significant impact on IFALD, odds ratio (OR) = 4.394 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.635-11.814; P =.003) and OR = 4.502 (95% CI 1.412-14.351; P =.011), respectively. Conclusion: Our study revealed that the prevalence of IFALD was comparable among the probiotic users and nonusers. Only small bowel length of 1090 cm and HPN use showed a significant impact on IFALD.