The Relationship between Calcium Intake and Hypertension among Obese Adults

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Background: Hypertension is defined as an elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg), or an elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg). The prevalence of hypertension is high in obese population. The potential effects of inadequate calcium intake on hypertension are receiving growing attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between calcium intake and hypertension among obese adults. Methods: A total of 14,856 obese adults aged 20 years or older were obtained from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Analysis of variance was used to examine if there was a relationship between calcium intake and blood pressure, SBP or DBP. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the association between calcium intake and hypertension after adjusting for potential confounders (energy intake, age, race, education level, alcohol use, smoking, and diabetes). Results: Prevalence of hypertension decreased with an increasing quartile of calcium intake (p < 0.0001). Multiple logistic regression showed that lowest quartile of calcium intake was associated with an increased risk of elevated SBP and elevated DBP (Odds Ratio (OR) =1.332, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.084-1.636; OR=1.700, 95% CI: 1.234-2.342, respectively). Compared with adults in the highest quartile of calcium intake, those in lowest quartile had 1.4 times increased risk of hypertension (OR=1.400, 95% CI: 1.157-1.694). Conclusion: Our study provides support of research perspective that inadequate calcium intake may increase the risk of hypertension, high SBP, or high BDP among obese adults. Further studies are needed to understand physiological mechanism. Increasing the calcium intake in obese adults can be considered as a strategy to prevent hypertension.


Johnson City, TN

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