LIMD1 (LIM domain-containing protein 1) is considered as a tumor suppressor, being deregulated in many cancers to include hematological malignancies; however, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of its deregulation and its roles in carcinogenesis. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is associated with a panel of malignancies of lymphocytic and epithelial origin. Using high throughput expression profiling, we have previously identified LIMD1 as a common marker associated with the oncogenic transcription factor IRF4 in EBV-related lymphomas and other hematological malignancies. In this study, we have identified potential conserved IRF4- and NFκB-binding motifs in the LIMD1 gene promoter, and both are demonstrated functional by promoter-reporter assays. We further show that LIMD1 is partially upregulated by EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) via IRF4 and NFκB in EBV latency. As to its role in the setting of EBV latent infection, we show that LIMD1 interacts with TRAF6, a crucial mediator of LMP1 signal transduction. Importantly, LIMD1 depletion impairs LMP1 signaling and functions, potentiates ionomycin-induced DNA damage and apoptosis, and inhibits p62-mediated selective autophagy. Taken together, these results show that LIMD1 is upregulated in EBV latency and plays an oncogenic role rather than that of a tumor suppressor. Our findings have identified LIMD1 as a novel player in EBV latency and oncogenesis, and open a novel research avenue, in which LIMD1 and p62 play crucial roles in linking DNA damage response (DDR), apoptosis, and autophagy and their potential interplay during viral oncogenesis
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Wang, Ling; Howell, Mary E. A.; McPeak, Brooke; Riggs, Katrina; Kohne, Carissa; Yohanon, Jether Uel; Foxler, Daniel E.; Sharp, Tyson V.; Moorman, Jonathon P.; Yao, Zhi Q.; and Ning, Shunbin. 2017. LIMD1 Is Induced by and Required for LMP1 Signaling, and Protects EBV-transformed Cells From DNA Damage-Induced Cell Death. Oncotarget. Vol.9(5). 6282-6297. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.23676 ISSN: 1949-2553