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Background.The leading cause of surface water impairment in United States’ rivers and streams is pathogen contamination. Although use of fecal indicators has reduced human health risk, current approaches to identify and reduce exposure can be improved. One important knowledge gap within exposure assessment is characterization of complex fate and transport processes of fecal pollution. Novel modeling processes can inform watershed decision-making to improve exposure assessment.

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2018 Gilfillan et al. This document was originally published in PeerJ.