Trends in Bioanalytical Methods for Club Drugs: 2000-2010.

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The term 'club drug' can be loosely defined as any substance used to enhance social settings. Such drugs are commonly found at raves or similar all-night dance parties and include methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine (KET), and flunitrazepam (FLU). These drugs have potentially dangerous side effects including hallucinations, paranoia, amnesia and hyperthermia. In addition, GHB, KET and FLU are considered predatory drugs due to their roles in drug-facilitated sexual assault. Forensic and regulatory agencies routinely have the need for determination and accurate quantification of these drugs in biological fluids, especially in cases of mortality or criminal investigations. This review presents the chromatographic and spectroscopic methods published for such analyses over the last decade, including sample preparation techniques and validation data.