Hormone and Adipokine Alterations across 11 Weeks of Training in Division 1 Collegiate Throwers: An Exploratory Study

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Introduction: Conceptually, it is important to understand the underlying physiological mechanisms of any training program model. This understanding aids the coach/sport scientist in making better choices in manipulating variables in formulating the training model. These underlying mechanisms can be associated with training variable manipulation, fatigue management aspects and the overall health of the athlete. Hormone and cytokine concentrations can be linked to alterations resulting from the manipulation of training variables and to subsequent alterations in performance. For example, alterations in the testosterone: cortisol ratio (T:C) has been associated with alterations in training volume as well as physiological aspects such as lean body mass, fat content and strength/power performance. Although cytokine production is part of the adaptive process, markedly increased/excessive cytokine production has been related poor fatigue management and over training. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the alterations and relationships among training variables, and physiological variables. Subjects: Nine (9) D-1 collegiate throwers and 4 control subjects participated in the study. Methods: The throwers participated in an 11- week periodized resistance training and throws program. Volume load was recorded throughout the study. Hormone (testosterone and cortisol (C), and adipokine (adiponectin, leptin, and resistin) measurements were taken at weeks 1, 7, and 11 for the throwers. Results: Hormone values did not exhibit statistically significant changes across time; however, there were trends across time for C, the T:C ratio and adiponectin. Conclusions: Based on the hormonal and adipokine data, it appears that the training program produced some positive effects. These effects indicate a reasonable degree of fatigue management in that C decreased and the T:C ratio was increased as volume load decreased. Literature supports the idea that increases in adiponectin may be a positive outcome of a sound training protocol (Smith et al., 2000). The present observation indicates that adiponectin increased in concert with decreases in C and increases in the T:C. ratio. Considering the effects of these hormones and cytokines, these alterations over time indicate a lesser degree of obesity related inflammation and a higher degree of “fitness” and preparedness



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