Document Type


Publication Date



The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a school-based cross-training program on body mass index (BMI), attitudes toward physical activity (ATPA), and physical activity (PA) levels of children in the 4th and 5th grades. Children (N = 118) were divided into control (n = 60) and experimental (n = 58) groups based on class availability. While the control group continued academic classes as usual, the experimental group participated in cross-training involving resistance training (RT), calisthenics, and stretching twice a week for 10 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention measures included height, mass, ATPA, and PA. BMI was calculated and ATPA and PA levels were assessed via questionnaire. The groups did not differ significantly (p > .05) for either pre- or post-intervention regarding BMI, ATPA, and PA. However, BMI and PA levels significantly increased over time for both groups (p ≤ .05). Overall, cross-training in a school setting may be a safe and enjoyable option for physical activity participation. BMI and PA increases were likely the result of the natural growth process and seasonal weather pattern changes, respectively. Nevertheless, the cross-training did not detract from PA levels and may have led to an overall increase in PA levels. As subdomain analyses revealed decreased attitude toward health and fitness in the experimental group, shorter programs involving RT with various protocols are recommended.

Copyright Statement

This article was originally published in the International Journal of Exercise Science.