Document Type


Publication Date



Conceptually, it is important to understand the underlying physiological mechanisms of any training program model. This understanding aids the coach/sport scientist in making better choices in manipulating variables in formulating the training model. These underlying mechanisms can be associated with training variable manipulation and fatigue management aspects as well as the overall health of the athlete. Hormone and cytokine concentrations can be linked to alterations resulting from the manipulation of training variables and to subsequent alterations in performance (Haff et al., 2008; Ishigaki et al., 2005; Jurimae et al., 2010; Stone et al., 2007). For example, alterations in the testosterone: cortisol ratio (T:C) has been associated with alterations in training volume as well as physiological aspects such as lean body mass (LBM), fat content and strength/power performance (Haff et al., 2008; Häkkinen, 1989; Stone et al., 2007). Although cytokine production is part of the adaptive process, markedly increased/excessive cytokine production has been related poor fatigue management and over training (Angeli et al., 2004; Jurimae et al., 2010; Smith, 2000). The present study followed NCAA division 1 (D-1) collegiate throwers over a period of an 11 week fall semester preparation-phase block form of periodized training. Volume and intensity alterations and their effects on physiological variables (e.g. neuromuscular, hormonal, cytokine) are a key component in understanding the effects of a training process. Alterations in these physiological variables were tracked over time in Division-1 collegiate throwers.


Johnson City, TN