A Systematic Review of Intervention Efforts to Reduce Indoor Tanning

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This chapter reviews the literature examining interventions to reduce indoor tanning (IT). The first objective was to highlight programs that show promise for large scale dissemination. The second objective was to promote criteria and standards for future intervention research efforts. The scope of interest for this review includes universal (for everyone in the population), selective (for those in the population who are at a greater risk), and indicated (for those who already are experiencing conditions that identify them as at risk) programs. The evaluation of the interventions resulted in three levels of evidence: (1) most promising, (2) emerging, and (3) mixed. For an intervention to be considered “most promising”, it was required that ten criteria be met through examination of research findings in published reports consistent with Flay and colleagues (Prev Sci 6(3):151–175, 2005). Interventions that were classified as “emerging” met most of the criteria. Finally, interventions classified as “mixed” did not reach threshold on more than two criteria that were deemed critical. The results revealed that there was very limited research on IT interventions that meet all the evaluation criteria. Only one intervention approach met all of the criteria (Appearance Booklet) (Hillhouse and Turrisi, Behav Med 25(4):395–409, 2002; Hillhouse et al., Cancer 113(11):3257–3266, 2008). Although the number of published papers in the IT area has increased dramatically over the past decade, these efforts have yet to translate into rigorously conducted intervention trials. The review points to important issues that need to be addressed in future research on the prevention of IT. Keywords