This phenomenological study addressed teacher perceptions of indigenous representations in United States history within a school district in East Tennessee. Teacher perceptions of indigenous representations in history were defined as teacher beliefs towards the inclusion and representation of indigenous peoples in United States history. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted from a purposeful sample of United States history teachers from multiple high schools in the school district. The analysis of data revealed three themes: (a) systemic challenges to multiculturalism within state course standards and textbooks, (b) teachers’ perceived self-efficacy in teaching their students using indigenous perspectives, (c) and the perpetuation of indigenous stereotypes. Furthermore, analysis revealed that U.S. history courses in the district perpetuate both the notion of indigenous peoples as historical bystanders and the racial stereotypes of Native Americans.
Tipton, Joshua C.; Scott, Pamela H.; and Flora, William F.. 2017. Teacher Perceptions of Indigenous Representations in History: A Phenomenological Study. Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of the Academic Business World International Conference & International Conference on Learning and Administration in Higher Education, Nashville, TN. 381-402.