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There is a critical need to teach computer science (CS) in order to assure that our nation remains competitive globally [6]. CS is a new basic skill necessary for economic opportunity [6] but is rarely taught before age 6 and only using electronic devices [1]. This presents a challenge for those concerned with “screen time” inherent in electronic devices [2] and for children in poverty with little access to electronic devices [3]. Coding, creating a series of commands that a computer carries out, is a component of CS and can be introduced as early as preschool age and results in increased logical sequencing [5] (putting action commands in order). Missing from the research is the impact of coding with non-electronic formats on logical sequencing with children younger than age 6. Our study fills this need by using a non-electronic format with 4-year-olds. The purpose is to see if playing Robot Turtles, a board game designed to teach coding, will increase logical sequencing skills. Our hypothesis is that we will see a 10 times greater increase in logical sequencing in the children who play Robot Turtles than those playing Candy Land, a board game with no measurable effect on math skills [4]


Hamburg, Germany