Development and Initial Validation of a Self-Scored COPD Population Screener Questionnaire (COPD-PS)

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COPD has a profound impact on daily life, yet remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. We set out to develop a brief, reliable, self-scored questionnaire to identify individuals likely to have COPD. COPD-PS™ development began with a list of concepts identified for inclusion using expert opinion from a clinician working group comprised of pulmonologists (n = 5) and primary care clinicians (n = 5). A national survey of 697 patients was conducted at 12 practitioner sites. Logistic regression identified items discriminating between patients with and without fixed airflow obstruction (AO, postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 70%). ROC analyses evaluated screening accuracy, compared scoring options, and assessed concurrent validity. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed via COPD-PS and SF-12v2 score correlations. For known-groups validation, COPD-PS differences between clinical groups were tested. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in a 20% sample. Of 697 patients surveyed, 295 patients met expert review criteria for spirometry performance; 38% of these (n = 113) had results indicating AO. Five items positively predicted AO (p < 0.0001): breathlessness, productive cough, activity limitation, smoking history, and age. COPD-PS scores accurately classified AO status (area under ROC curve = 0.81) and reliable (r = 0.91). Patients with spirometry indicative of AO scored significantly higher (6.8, SD = 1.9; p < 0.0001) than patients without AO (4.0, SD = 2.3). Higher scores were associated with more severe AO, bronchodilator use, and overnight hospitalization for breathing problems. With the prevalence of COPD in the studied cohort, a score on the COPD-PS of greater than five was associated with a positive predictive value of 56.8% and negative predictive value of 86.4%. The COPD-PS accurately classified physicianreported COPD (AUC = 0.89). The COPD-PS is a brief, accurate questionnaire that can identify individuals likely to have COPD.