Tinnitus Self-Efficacy and Other Tinnitus Self-Report Variables in Patients With and Without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Document Type


Publication Date



Objective: Individuals with tinnitus and co-occurring psychological conditions typically rate their tinnitus as more disturbing than individuals without such comorbidities. Little is known about how tinnitus self-efficacy, or the confidence that individuals have in their abilities to successfully manage the effects of tinnitus, is influenced by mental or psychological health (PH) status. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of psychological state on tinnitus perceptions and tinnitus self-efficacy in individuals with chronic tinnitus.

Design: Observational study. Three groups (N = 199) were examined and included: (1) those with tinnitus without a concurrent psychological condition (tinnitus-only; n = 103), (2) those with tinnitus and concurrent PH condition other than post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; tinnitus + PH; n = 34), and (3) those with tinnitus and PTSD (tinnitus + PTSD; n = 62). The Self-Efficacy for Tinnitus Management Questionnaire (SETMQ) was administered. Responses on the SETMQ were compared among the groups, as well as to other indicators of tinnitus perception such as (1) the percentage of time tinnitus was audible (tinnitus awareness), (2) the percentage of time tinnitus was distressing/bothersome, (3) tinnitus loudness, (4) tinnitus handicap inventory scores, (5) subjective ratings of degree of hearing loss, and (6) subjective ratings of sound tolerance problems.

Results: The tinnitus + PTSD group reported significantly poorer tinnitus self-efficacy levels on average than the tinnitus-only group on all SETMQ subscales and poorer self-efficacy levels than the tinnitus + PH group for most subscales (except for routine management and devices). Tinnitus self-efficacy levels were similar between the tinnitus + PH and tinnitus-only groups except for the emotional response subscale in which the tinnitus-only patients reported higher self-efficacy on average than both the other groups. Group differences were not seen for tinnitus loudness ratings nor for the amount of time individuals were aware of their tinnitus. Group differences were observed for the percentage of time tinnitus was distressing/bothersome, self-reported degree of hearing loss, sound tolerance problems ratings, and responses on the tinnitus handicap inventory (THI). In general, the group differences revealed patient ratings for the tinnitus-only group were least severe, followed by the tinnitus + PH group, and the tinnitus + PTSD group rated tinnitus effects as most severe. With all patient responses, the tinnitus + PTSD group was found to be significantly more affected by tinnitus than the tinnitus-only group; in some cases, the responses were similar between the tinnitus + PTSD and tinnitus + PH group and in other cases, responses were similar between the tinnitus + PH group and the tinnitus-only group.

Conclusions: Tinnitus self-efficacy, along with other self-assessed tinnitus characteristics, varied across groups distinguished by PH diagnoses. In general, individuals with tinnitus and concurrent PTSD reported significantly poorer tinnitus self-efficacy and more handicapping tinnitus effects when compared to individuals with other psychological conditions or those with tinnitus alone. The group differences highlighted the need to consider tinnitus self-efficacy in intervention strategies, particularly for patients with tinnitus and concurrent PTSD as the results reiterated the unique ability of PTSD to interact in powerful and disturbing ways with the tinnitus experience and with patients’ coping ability.