MicroRNAs as Potential Regulators of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Expansion

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Proper development and activation of cells of the myeloid lineage are critical for supporting innate immunity. This myelopoiesis is orchestrated by interdependent interactions between cytokine receptors, transcription factors and, as recently described, microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs contribute to normal and dysregulated myelopoiesis. Alterations in myelopoiesis underlie myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) expansion, a poorly understood heterogeneous population of immature and suppressive myeloid cells that expand in nearly all diseases where inflammation exists. MDSCs associated with inflammation often have immunosuppressive properties, but molecular mechanisms responsible for MDSC expansion are unclear. Emerging data implicate miRNAs in MDSC expansion. This review focuses on miRNAs that contribute to myeloid lineage differentiation and maturation under physiological conditions, and introduces the concept that altered miRNA expression my underlie expansion and accumulation of MDSCs. We divide our miRNAs into those with potential to promote MDSC expansion and two with known direct links to MDSC expansion, miR-223 and miR-494.