Associations of Dietary Habits, Physical Activity and Cognitive Views With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Among Chinese Women

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Objective To evaluate the relationship between dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive views and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese women. Design A cross-sectional study to explore the potential risk factors of GMD through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, an FFQ and a self-designed structured questionnaire, respectively. Setting Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Subjects Chinese pregnant women (n 571) who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at their 24th to 28th gestational week. Results Thirteen per cent of the investigated women were identified as having GDM, and an increased intake of local featured foods and lower physical activity were observed in the GDM-positive group v. The GDM-negative group. Women who regarded early-pregnancy morning sickness as relevant to fetal abnormalities and those with unlimited dietary intake after the ending of morning sickness both had an increased risk for GDM (P = 0·018 and P = 0·038, respectively). After multiple logistic regression analysis, cognitive views for unlimited food intake subsequent to morning sickness, increased consumption of energy-dense snack foods and high-glycaemic-index fruits were strongly associated with the risk of GDM (OR = 1·911, P = 0·032; OR = 1·050, P = 0·001; and OR = 1·002, P = 0·017, respectively). Conclusions Local featured foods and incorrect cognitive views on pregnancy-related health were closely related to the risk of GDM in Chinese women. Intensive health education about pregnancy physiology and reasonable dietary and physical exercise behaviours should be strengthened for the control of GDM.