Rare SERINC2 Variants Are Specific for Alcohol Dependence in Individuals of European Descent

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OBJECTIVES: We have previously reported a top-ranked risk gene [i.e., serine incorporator 2 gene (SERINC2)] for alcohol dependence in individuals of European descent by analyzing the common variants in a genome-wide association study. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the rare variants [minor allele frequency (MAF)<0.05] in the NKAIN1-SERINC2 region to confirm our previous finding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A discovery sample (1409 European-American patients with alcohol dependence and 1518 European-American controls) and a replication sample (6438 European-Australian family participants with 1645 alcohol-dependent probands) were subjected to an association analysis. A total of 39 903 individuals from 19 other cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders served as contrast groups. The entire NKAIN1-SERINC2 region was imputed in all cohorts using the same reference panels of genotypes that included rare variants from the whole-genome sequencing data. We stringently cleaned the phenotype and genotype data, and obtained a total of about 220 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in individuals of European descent and about 450 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the individuals of African descent with 0