The Vasoactive Peptide Urotensin II Stimulates Spontaneous Release From Frog Motor Nerve Terminals
1. The effect of urotensin II (U-II) on spontaneous transmitter release was examined in the frog to see if the biological activity of this vasoactive peptide extended to neural tissues. 2. In normal Ringer solution, frog and human U-II (fU-II and hU-II, respectively) caused concentration-dependent, reversible increases in miniature endplate potential (MEPP) frequency, with hU-II about 22 times more potent than fU-II. hU-II caused a dose-dependent increase in MEPP amplitude, whereas fU-II caused an increase, followed by a decrease with higher concentrations. 3. Increasing extracellular Ca 2+ three-fold had no effect on the MEPP frequency increase to 25 μM hU-II. Pretreatment with thapsigargin to deplete endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ caused a 61% reduction in the MEPP frequency increase to 25 μM hU-II. 4. Pretreatment with the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 caused a 93% reduction in the MEPP frequency increase to 25 μM hU-II and a 15% reduction in the increase in MEPP amplitude. Pretreating with antibodies against the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3) type 1 receptor using liposomal techniques reduced the MEPP frequency increase by 83% but had no effect on MEPP amplitude. 5. Pretreating with protein kinase C inhibitors (bisindolylmaleimide I and III) had no effect on the response to 25 μM hU-II, but pretreating with protein kinase A inhibitors (H-89 and KT5720) reduced the MEPP frequency increase by 88% and completely abolished the increase in MEPP amplitude. 6. Our results show that hU-II is a potent stimulator of spontaneous transmitter release in the frog and that the effect is mediated by IP 3 and cyclic AMP/protein kinase A.
Brailoiu, E.; Brailoiu, G. C.; Miyamoto, M. D.; and Dun, N. J.. 2003. The Vasoactive Peptide Urotensin II Stimulates Spontaneous Release From Frog Motor Nerve Terminals. British Journal of Pharmacology. Vol.138(8). 1580-1588. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705204 PMID: 12721114 ISSN: 0007-1188