Tissue Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Ketoprofen Enantiomers

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Local transcutaneous delivery of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs avoids gastrointestinal side effects and concentrates drugs in the intended tissues. An extraction and HPLC method was developed for ketoprofen in skin, fascia and muscle. Tissue samples were homogenized in NaHCO3. After methylene chloride removal of lipids, the aqueous layer was acidified with HCl and back extracted into isooctane/isopropanol. Ketoprofen was derivatized with ethylchloroformate/S-(-)-α-phenylethylamine in triethylamine, then detected by HPLC. Ketoprofen recovery was linear (1-33 μg/g) and was detected in these tissues following in vivo cathodic iontophoresis (160 mA*min). This represents the first non-radioactive method for determination of ketoprofen in tissues following transcutaneous iontophoresis.