Determinants of Probation and Parole Officer Professional Orientation
Sources of probation and parole officer professional orientation (attitudes toward offenders and toward interaction with offenders) were analyzed using a recently developed instrument: the Klofas-Toch measure. A review of the literature suggested that certain individual-characteristic and organizational-condition variables might be considered as determinants of orientation. Although regression analysis showed that little of the variation was explained, participation in decisionmaking appeared to be an important determinant of officer orientation, and officers were high on rehabilitation orientation and low on punishment.
Whitehead, John T.; and Lindquist, Charles A.. 1992. Determinants of Probation and Parole Officer Professional Orientation. Journal of Criminal Justice. Vol.20(1). 13-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/0047-2352(92)90031-4 ISSN: 0047-2352