Independent Influences of Excessive Body Weight and Elevated Blood Pressure From Childhood on Left Ventricular Geometric Remodeling in Adulthood

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Background Obesity and hypertension are two risk factors of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in adults. We aimed to examine the impacts of body weight and blood pressure (BP) from childhood on adult LV geometric remodeling. Methods The study cohort consisted of 1256 adults aged 27–42 years who had 2–10 measurements of body mass index (BMI) and BP from childhood in 1987 to adulthood in 2010. We calculated the cumulative and incremental values of BMI and BP from childhood to adulthood. In adulthood, four LV geometric patterns were defined based on the values of left ventricular mass index (g/m2.7) and relative wall thickness: normal geometry, concentric remodeling (CR), eccentric hypertrophy (EH) and concentric hypertrophy (CH). Results The prevalence of abnormal LV geometric patterns in adults was 26.4% for CR, 2.0% for EH and 2.5% for CH. For childhood values, systolic BP (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08–1.47) but not BMI (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.93-1.18) was associated with adult CR, whereas BMI (OR = 3.53, 95%CI = 2.09–5.98) but not systolic BP (OR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.65–1.66) was associated with adult EH. Both childhood BMI (OR = 2.69, 95%CI = 1.77–4.09) and systolic BP (OR = 1.64, 95%CI = 1.07–2.51) were independently associated with adult CH. For adulthood, cumulative and incremental values, BMI and systolic BP were independently associated with adult CR, EH and CH. Conclusion Excessive body weight and elevated BP from childhood have independent influences on the development of adult LV geometric remodeling.