Principal Component Analysis of Early Alcohol, Drug and Tobacco Use With Major Depressive Disorder in Us Adults

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Early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old are comorbid and correlated. This study included 6239 adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) in the past year and 72,010 controls from the combined data of 2013 and 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). To deal with multicollinearity existing among 17 variables related to early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to infer PC scores and then use weighted multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations of potential factors and PC scores with MDD. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The overall prevalence of MDD was 6.7%. The first four PCs could explain 57% of the total variance. Weighted multiple logistic regression showed that PC1 (a measure of psychotherapeutic drugs and illicit drugs other than marijuana use), PC2 (a measure of cocaine and hallucinogens), PC3 (a measure of early alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana use), and PC4 (a measure of cigar, smokeless tobacco use and illicit drugs use) revealed significant associations with MDD (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.08–1.16, OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04–1.12, OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07–1.18, and OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.09–1.21, respectively). In conclusion, PCA can be used to reduce the indicators in complex survey data. Early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old were found to be associated with increased odds of adult MDD.