Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Kinase Deficiency Impairs the Autophagic Response Early During Myocardial Infarction
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) is activated in response to DNA damage. We have previously shown that ATM plays a critical role in myocyte apoptosis and cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Here, we tested the hypothesis that ATM deficiency results in autophagic impairment in the heart early during MI. MI was induced in wild-type (WT) and ATM heterozygous knockout (hKO) mice by ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Structural and biochemical parameters of the heart were measured 4 h after left anterior descending artery ligation. M-mode echocardiography revealed that MI worsens heart function, as evidenced by reduced percent ejection fraction and fractional shortening in both groups. However, MI-induced increase in left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters and volumes were significantly lower in hKO hearts. ATM deficiency resulted in autophagic impairment during MI, as evidenced by decreased microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II increased p62, decreased cathepsin D protein levels, and increased aggresome accumulation. ERK1/2 activation was only observed in WT-MI hearts. Activation of Akt and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was lower, whereas activation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was higher in hKO-MI hearts. Inhibition of ATM using KU-55933 resulted in autophagic impairment in cardiac fibroblasts, as evidenced by decreased light chain 3-II protein levels and formation of acidic vesicular organelles. This impairment was associated with decreased activation of Akt and AMPK but enhanced activation of GSK-3 β and mTOR in KU-55933-treated fibroblasts. Thus, ATM deficiency results in autophagic impairment in the heart during MI and cardiac fibroblasts. This autophagic impairment may occur via the activation of GSK-3 β and mTOR and inactivation of Akt and AMPK. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) plays a critical role in myocyte apoptosis and cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Here, we provide evidence that ATM deficiency results in autophagic impairment during MI. Further investigation of the role of ATM in autophagy post-MI may provide novel therapeutic targets for patients with ataxia telangiectasia suffering from heart disease.
Thrasher, Patsy R.; Scofield, Stephanie L.C.; Dalal, Suman; Crawford, Claire C.; Singh, Mahipal; and Singh, Krishna. 2018. Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Kinase Deficiency Impairs the Autophagic Response Early During Myocardial Infarction. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Vol.315(1). H48-H57. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00042.2018 PMID: 29652546 ISSN: 0363-6135