The Comparison of Risk of Stroke in Patients With Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Objective: Several studies have demonstrated that end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on dialysis are at higher risk for cerebrovascular events, especially those on hemodialysis. However, the risk of stroke in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) compared to those on hemodialysis (HD) remains unclear. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the risks of stroke in ESRD patients on PD compared to HD. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases from inception through January 2018 to identify studies that evaluated the risks of stroke (all types of stroke, ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke) in ESRD patients on different dialysis modalities. Effect estimates from the individual study were extracted and combined using random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. Results: Fifteen cohort studies with a total of 1 289 572 ESRD patients (over 1 140 942 on HD and 122 534 on PD) were enrolled. Compared with HD, PD was associated with a significantly decreased risk of hemorrhagic stroke with pooled OR of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.92). However, there were no differences in risks of all types of stroke or ischemic stroke in those on PD compared to HD with pooled ORs of 1.06 (95% CI: 0.91-1.22) and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80-1.18,), respectively. Conclusions: PD status is associated with 16% lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke compared to HD, but the risks of all types of stroke and hemorrhagic stroke are not statistically different in PD patients when compared to HD patients.