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Clinical trials had provided evidence for the benefit effect of antihypertensive treatments in preventing future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events; however, the association between hypertension, whether treated/untreated or controlled/uncontrolled and risk of mortality in US population has been poorly understood. A total of 13,947 US adults aged ≥18 years enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used to conduct this study. Mortality outcome events included all-cause, CVD-specific, heart disease-specific and cerebrovascular disease-specific deaths, which were obtained from linked 2011 National Death Index (NDI) files. During a median follow-up of 19.1 years, there were 3,550 all-cause deaths, including 1,027 CVD deaths. Compared with normotensives, treated but uncontrolled hypertensive patients were at higher risk of all-cause (HR = 1.62, 95%CI = 1.35-1.95), CVD-specific (HR = 2.23, 95%CI = 1.66-2.99), heart disease-specific (HR = 2.19, 95%CI = 1.57-3.05) and cerebrovascular disease-specific (HR = 3.01, 95%CI = 1.91-4.73) mortality. Additionally, untreated hypertensive patients had increased risk of all-cause (HR = 1.40, 95%CI = 1.21-1.62), CVD-specific (HR = 1.77, 95%CI = 1.34-2.35), heart disease-specific (HR = 1.69, 95%CI = 1.23-2.32) and cerebrovascular disease-specific death (HR = 2.53, 95%CI = 1.52-4.23). No significant differences were identified between normotensives, and treated and controlled hypertensives (all p > 0.05). Our study findings emphasize the benefit of secondary prevention in hypertensive patients and primary prevention in general population to prevent risk of mortality later in life.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.