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BACKGROUND A condyloma acuminatum is a sexually transmitted, human papillomavirus (HPV) associated, neoplasm. In men, it is predominantly found on external genitalia and rarely progresses more proximally than the distal penile urethra. Condyloma acuminata of the prostatic urethra are rare and are usually seen as an extension of, or in association with external lesions. Therefore, it is not typically considered in the differential diagnosis of isolated papillary lesions limited to the prostatic urethra. CASE REPORT A 62-year-old male with rheumatoid arthritis treated with abatacept presented to urology due to a history of intermittent bladder self-catheterization for urinary obstruction. He underwent a transurethral resection of the prostate and had incidental findings of papillary lesions restricted to the prostatic urethra that were presumed to be urothelial carcinoma. Microscopic examination established the diagnosis of condyloma acuminata, and low-risk HPV 6 and 11 were detected by in-situ hybridization. Subsequent cystoscopy showed marked growth and extension of condyloma acuminata to near the external meatus. After multiple treatments with intraurethral 5-fluorouracil, several small lesions remained in the bulbous urethra. With follow up for 2 years since diagnosis, the patient has not developed external condylomata. CONCLUSIONS A condyloma acuminatum might present as an isolated papillary growth in the prostatic urethra without clinical or historical evidence of a visible lesion on external genitalia. Immunosuppression and/or urethral instrumentation might be a risk factor for such a presentation. Urologists and pathologists should be aware of this rare possibility in order to avoid misdiagnosis, and ensure that the patient receives appropriate therapy.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.