Project Title

Experiences of Care Among Women of Childbearing Age Receiving Medications for Opioid Use Disorder in East Tennessee

Authors' Affiliations

Hanna Sigmund, Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN. Karilynn Dowling-McClay, PharmD, MPH, BCACP, Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN.

Location

Culp Ballroom

Start Date

4-7-2022 9:00 AM

End Date

4-7-2022 12:00 PM

Poster Number

33

Faculty Sponsor’s Department

Pharmacy Practice

Name of Project's Faculty Sponsor

Karilynn Dowling-McClay

Classification of First Author

Pharmacy Student

Competition Type

Competitive

Type

Literature Review

Project's Category

Maternal Health, Patient Care and Education, Prenatal Care, Reproductive Health Services, Rural Health, Womens Health

Abstract or Artist's Statement

Introduction: The consequences of the opioid epidemic and various prevention, mitigation, and treatment strategies have a strong hold on Appalachian communities. However, limited research has been conducted to understand the experiences of special populations impacted by opioids in this region, such as women of childbearing age living with opioid use disorder (OUD) prior to and during pregnancy. The objective of this review is to summarize existing literature on the care experience for women of childbearing age receiving treatment with medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) in rural east Tennessee. This literature review will allow for better understanding of current treatment practices, potential gaps in care, and needed care system improvements for this patient population.

Methods: A systematic PubMed search identified studies focused on MOUD and pregnancy in the rural eastern Tennessee region. Search results were screened to remove publications older than five years or from outside the region. Relevant information concerning the MOUD care experience for women of childbearing age in the area was collected from these studies.

Results: Five studies were included: four surveys and a systematic review. All were published within the last five years and described experiences spanning preconception to postnatal care as well as Tennessee opioid laws that affect women of childbearing age. Two studies detailed the pre-pregnancy care experience, including information about prior pregnancies, intention of conception, contraceptive use, and perceived barriers to contraception access among women receiving MOUD. Two studies described the care experience during pregnancy and its evolution in recent years with changes in acceptance of insurance for MOUD treatment, rates of MOUD-positive prenatal drug screens, and MOUD tapering practices during pregnancy. The final included study reviewed several Tennessee opioid laws enacted over the years to combat prenatal substance use and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Notably, while total reported cases of NAS have decreased statewide in recent years, the highest rates continue to be observed in east Tennessee, with a majority of cases linked to MOUD exposure. The requirements and enforcement of NAS-related legislation in Tennessee have changed over time but their existence may deter pregnant women from seeking treatment due to fear of punitive consequences.

Conclusion: The evidence compiled in this literature review points to many areas in which the care experience can be improved for women of childbearing age receiving MOUD in east Tennessee. There are concerns regarding pregnancy planning, contraceptive access, availability of evidence-based OUD treatment, cost of treatment, and fear of actual or potential negative repercussions from opioid use during pregnancy. These findings suggest multiple efforts can be undertaken by clinicians, researchers, and policymakers to enhance the experience of care for women of childbearing age living with OUD, and consequently improve the health of the population in general, in this region of Appalachia.

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Apr 7th, 9:00 AM Apr 7th, 12:00 PM

Experiences of Care Among Women of Childbearing Age Receiving Medications for Opioid Use Disorder in East Tennessee

Culp Ballroom

Introduction: The consequences of the opioid epidemic and various prevention, mitigation, and treatment strategies have a strong hold on Appalachian communities. However, limited research has been conducted to understand the experiences of special populations impacted by opioids in this region, such as women of childbearing age living with opioid use disorder (OUD) prior to and during pregnancy. The objective of this review is to summarize existing literature on the care experience for women of childbearing age receiving treatment with medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) in rural east Tennessee. This literature review will allow for better understanding of current treatment practices, potential gaps in care, and needed care system improvements for this patient population.

Methods: A systematic PubMed search identified studies focused on MOUD and pregnancy in the rural eastern Tennessee region. Search results were screened to remove publications older than five years or from outside the region. Relevant information concerning the MOUD care experience for women of childbearing age in the area was collected from these studies.

Results: Five studies were included: four surveys and a systematic review. All were published within the last five years and described experiences spanning preconception to postnatal care as well as Tennessee opioid laws that affect women of childbearing age. Two studies detailed the pre-pregnancy care experience, including information about prior pregnancies, intention of conception, contraceptive use, and perceived barriers to contraception access among women receiving MOUD. Two studies described the care experience during pregnancy and its evolution in recent years with changes in acceptance of insurance for MOUD treatment, rates of MOUD-positive prenatal drug screens, and MOUD tapering practices during pregnancy. The final included study reviewed several Tennessee opioid laws enacted over the years to combat prenatal substance use and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Notably, while total reported cases of NAS have decreased statewide in recent years, the highest rates continue to be observed in east Tennessee, with a majority of cases linked to MOUD exposure. The requirements and enforcement of NAS-related legislation in Tennessee have changed over time but their existence may deter pregnant women from seeking treatment due to fear of punitive consequences.

Conclusion: The evidence compiled in this literature review points to many areas in which the care experience can be improved for women of childbearing age receiving MOUD in east Tennessee. There are concerns regarding pregnancy planning, contraceptive access, availability of evidence-based OUD treatment, cost of treatment, and fear of actual or potential negative repercussions from opioid use during pregnancy. These findings suggest multiple efforts can be undertaken by clinicians, researchers, and policymakers to enhance the experience of care for women of childbearing age living with OUD, and consequently improve the health of the population in general, in this region of Appalachia.