Project Title

Lung Cancer in Tennessee

Authors' Affiliations

Akesh Thomas, Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN. Zainab Fatima, Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN. Girendra V Hoskere, Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN.

Faculty Sponsor’s Department

Internal Medicine

Type

Oral Competitive

Classification of First Author

Medical Resident or Clinical Fellow

Project's Category

Registries

Abstract Text

Introduction

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States (US). Tobacco smoking is a well-recognized cause of lung cancer. About 2% of the United States (US) population lives in Tennessee (TN). Nearly 21 % of TN adults are current smokers as per 2019 data, compared to 14% across the US. The percentage of smokers has historically been high in TN and its surroundings. This can be attributed to the area's socio-economic and cultural characteristics, along with large areas of tobacco farming in the region. This increases the risk of lung cancer in the TN population. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) is a collection of cancer registries across the US, covering about 35% of the US population (TN cancer registry is not a part of SEER). Our study compares lung cancer incidence and characteristics in the TN cancer registry with the SEER 18 registry.

Materials and Methods

Data were collected from the TN cancer registry and SEER separately for lung and bronchial cancer. Data was analyzed for different histological subtypes, age groups, gender, stage at diagnosis, and rural/urban residence. Stata and Microsoft Excel were used in data analysis. A Chi-square test was used to calculate the statistical significance.

Results

From 2008 to 2017, 58644 cases of lung cancer were reported in the Tennessee cancer registry. During the same period, 519112 cases were reported in the SEER registry. The most frequent histological subtype of lung cancer in TN and SEER was adenocarcinoma (frequency of 17,503 Vs. 182346), followed by squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. Most cancers in TN and SEER were diagnosed at stage of distant metastasis (46% vs. 52% ), followed by regional metastasis, localized, and in situ (Image1). The frequency of lung cancer diagnosis was high among those older than 65 in TN and SEER (64% vs. 69%). Males had a higher incidence of lung cancer in both registries. Most lung cancers were reported in the urban area in both registries. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the most commonly reported secondary diagnosis (3,099), followed by pleural effusion in the TN database; the comparable data were not available in SEER. Relative survival at 12 months and five years for lung cancer in TN were 46.6 % and 19.5 % (Vs. 46.4% and 19.9% in SEER)

Discussion and Conclusion

If both registries were perfect, then lung and bronchial cancer incidence will be 9241 and 6048 per million in ten years in TN and SEER, respectively. But after careful analysis, we conclude that such analysis will be erroneous. The proportion of different histological types, stage at diagnosis, age groups, and gender were in the same order in both groups. Although chi-square test values are significant for all the variables, we infer no conclusion considering the data's inherent bias. Further in-depth analysis of the data is required.

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Lung Cancer in Tennessee

Introduction

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States (US). Tobacco smoking is a well-recognized cause of lung cancer. About 2% of the United States (US) population lives in Tennessee (TN). Nearly 21 % of TN adults are current smokers as per 2019 data, compared to 14% across the US. The percentage of smokers has historically been high in TN and its surroundings. This can be attributed to the area's socio-economic and cultural characteristics, along with large areas of tobacco farming in the region. This increases the risk of lung cancer in the TN population. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) is a collection of cancer registries across the US, covering about 35% of the US population (TN cancer registry is not a part of SEER). Our study compares lung cancer incidence and characteristics in the TN cancer registry with the SEER 18 registry.

Materials and Methods

Data were collected from the TN cancer registry and SEER separately for lung and bronchial cancer. Data was analyzed for different histological subtypes, age groups, gender, stage at diagnosis, and rural/urban residence. Stata and Microsoft Excel were used in data analysis. A Chi-square test was used to calculate the statistical significance.

Results

From 2008 to 2017, 58644 cases of lung cancer were reported in the Tennessee cancer registry. During the same period, 519112 cases were reported in the SEER registry. The most frequent histological subtype of lung cancer in TN and SEER was adenocarcinoma (frequency of 17,503 Vs. 182346), followed by squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. Most cancers in TN and SEER were diagnosed at stage of distant metastasis (46% vs. 52% ), followed by regional metastasis, localized, and in situ (Image1). The frequency of lung cancer diagnosis was high among those older than 65 in TN and SEER (64% vs. 69%). Males had a higher incidence of lung cancer in both registries. Most lung cancers were reported in the urban area in both registries. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the most commonly reported secondary diagnosis (3,099), followed by pleural effusion in the TN database; the comparable data were not available in SEER. Relative survival at 12 months and five years for lung cancer in TN were 46.6 % and 19.5 % (Vs. 46.4% and 19.9% in SEER)

Discussion and Conclusion

If both registries were perfect, then lung and bronchial cancer incidence will be 9241 and 6048 per million in ten years in TN and SEER, respectively. But after careful analysis, we conclude that such analysis will be erroneous. The proportion of different histological types, stage at diagnosis, age groups, and gender were in the same order in both groups. Although chi-square test values are significant for all the variables, we infer no conclusion considering the data's inherent bias. Further in-depth analysis of the data is required.

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