Project Title

Liver Mass: An Unusual Presentation of Multiple Myeloma

Authors' Affiliations

Hemendra Mhadgut, Department of Internal Medicine- Medical Oncology, Quillen College of Medicine, Johnson City, TN Alay Mansurov, Department of Internal Medicine- Medical Oncology, Quillen College of Medicine, Johnson City, TN Rabia Zafar, Department of Pathology, Quillen College of Medicine, Johnson City, TN Koyamangalath Krishnan, Department of Internal Medicine- Medical Oncology, Quillen College of Medicine, Johnson City, TN

Faculty Sponsor’s Department

Internal Medicine

Name of Project's Faculty Sponsor

Dr. Koyamangalath Krishnan

Type

Poster: Competitive

Classification of First Author

Medical Resident or Clinical Fellow

Project's Category

Cancer or Carcinogenesis

Abstract Text

Multiple myeloma is characterized by proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, producing monoclonal immunoglobulin. It accounts for 17% of hematologic malignancies in the US. Diagnosis is often suspected in the setting of bone lytic lesions, anemia, hypercalcemia or renal failure. Rarely, multiple myeloma can present with soft tissue involvement which can be difficult to diagnose. Below we present one such presentation.

Our patient is a 53-year-old who was initially diagnosed with multiple myeloma six years back when he presented to hospital with back and right leg pain. On admission he was found to have multiple lytic lesions involving the appendicular and axial skeleton. On further workup, bone marrow biopsy showed 30% plasma cells with IgG kappa monoclonal protein elevation. Patient was diagnosed with ISS stage II multiple myeloma. He was treated with standard regimen with Velcade, Revlimid and dexamethasone with excellent response. Patient was evaluated for stem cell transplant however did not qualify for it due to social challenges. Patient was continued on maintenance therapy with Velcade and Revlimid for 8 cycles prior to clinical relapse with lytic lesions in the C-spine. At this point patient was switched to different therapeutic regimen with pomalidomide, carfilzomib and dexamethasone and had excellent response for 35 cycles on this regimen. Patient had interruption in treatment for 3 months due to other medical comorbidities. A repeat bone marrow biopsy which was done in November of 2019 revealed extensive bone marrow involvement with 70% plasma cells concerning for relapse. Patient was started on single agent daratumumab in December 2019 however had a difficult course interrupted by right-sided abdominal pain, persistent nausea and decreased appetite requiring hospital admission. Further workup revealed a 2.7 cm lesion in the liver as well as a 4.9 x 7.3 cm T11 left paraspinal soft tissue mass. Biopsy of the liver lesion revealed sheets of kappa restricted abnormal plasma cells concerning for progression of disease. Given the involvement of the visceral organ and the extent of his disease, it was decided to switch patient's treatment from single agent daratumumab to a multi agent chemotherapy regimen with dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, etoposide and cisplatin. Patient received his 1st cycle inpatient and had marked symptomatic improvement and was discharged home. His M-protein spike reduced from 3.9 to 1.8 g/dl post once cycle of treatment.

Soft tissue involvement by multiple myeloma is rare event. Though malignant plasma cells may diffusely infiltrate the liver parenchyma, the nodular spread is unique. In review by Talamo et al, out of 2,584 patients with MM, only 11 had liver plasmacytomas. This phenomenon is driven by lack of expression of adhesion molecules, increased heparanase-1 expression and loss of chemokine receptors on myeloma cells. Such alterations in cell architecture lead to more aggressive disease behavior. At present time treatment for this unique patient population does not differ from other MM cases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of such event.

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Liver Mass: An Unusual Presentation of Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma is characterized by proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, producing monoclonal immunoglobulin. It accounts for 17% of hematologic malignancies in the US. Diagnosis is often suspected in the setting of bone lytic lesions, anemia, hypercalcemia or renal failure. Rarely, multiple myeloma can present with soft tissue involvement which can be difficult to diagnose. Below we present one such presentation.

Our patient is a 53-year-old who was initially diagnosed with multiple myeloma six years back when he presented to hospital with back and right leg pain. On admission he was found to have multiple lytic lesions involving the appendicular and axial skeleton. On further workup, bone marrow biopsy showed 30% plasma cells with IgG kappa monoclonal protein elevation. Patient was diagnosed with ISS stage II multiple myeloma. He was treated with standard regimen with Velcade, Revlimid and dexamethasone with excellent response. Patient was evaluated for stem cell transplant however did not qualify for it due to social challenges. Patient was continued on maintenance therapy with Velcade and Revlimid for 8 cycles prior to clinical relapse with lytic lesions in the C-spine. At this point patient was switched to different therapeutic regimen with pomalidomide, carfilzomib and dexamethasone and had excellent response for 35 cycles on this regimen. Patient had interruption in treatment for 3 months due to other medical comorbidities. A repeat bone marrow biopsy which was done in November of 2019 revealed extensive bone marrow involvement with 70% plasma cells concerning for relapse. Patient was started on single agent daratumumab in December 2019 however had a difficult course interrupted by right-sided abdominal pain, persistent nausea and decreased appetite requiring hospital admission. Further workup revealed a 2.7 cm lesion in the liver as well as a 4.9 x 7.3 cm T11 left paraspinal soft tissue mass. Biopsy of the liver lesion revealed sheets of kappa restricted abnormal plasma cells concerning for progression of disease. Given the involvement of the visceral organ and the extent of his disease, it was decided to switch patient's treatment from single agent daratumumab to a multi agent chemotherapy regimen with dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, etoposide and cisplatin. Patient received his 1st cycle inpatient and had marked symptomatic improvement and was discharged home. His M-protein spike reduced from 3.9 to 1.8 g/dl post once cycle of treatment.

Soft tissue involvement by multiple myeloma is rare event. Though malignant plasma cells may diffusely infiltrate the liver parenchyma, the nodular spread is unique. In review by Talamo et al, out of 2,584 patients with MM, only 11 had liver plasmacytomas. This phenomenon is driven by lack of expression of adhesion molecules, increased heparanase-1 expression and loss of chemokine receptors on myeloma cells. Such alterations in cell architecture lead to more aggressive disease behavior. At present time treatment for this unique patient population does not differ from other MM cases. It is important for clinicians to recognize the possibility of such event.