Project Title

Life threatening GI bleeding from stomal varices managed by TIPS and Amplatzer plug embolization

Authors' Affiliations

David Wilhoite, Dr. Tyler Aasen, and Dr. Lawrence Schmidt. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee.

Location

Clinch Mtn. Room 215

Start Date

4-5-2018 8:00 AM

End Date

4-5-2018 12:00 PM

Poster Number

154

Name of Project's Faculty Sponsor

Lawrence Schmidt

Faculty Sponsor's Department

ETSU Quillen College of Medicine

Type

Poster: Competitive

Classification of First Author

Medical Student

Project's Category

Biomedical Case Study

Abstract Text

Stomal varices are a rare phenomenon that can infrequently develop in patients with enterostomies and portal hypertension. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding from stomal varices can be life threatening and is often a diagnostic challenge. We present a case of severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage from stomal varices requiring emergent intervention with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and plug embolization.

A 61 year old male patient with a history of colorectal adenocarcinoma status post chemotherapy, radiation, along with low anterior colon resection with ostomy creation presented with a one day history of sudden onset of bright red blood from his colostomy site. He had a known history of decompensated cirrhosis related to hepatitis C and alcohol abuse. On arrival, the patient was tachycardic with borderline low blood pressure with evidence of bright red bleeding from his ostomy site. After initial resuscitation, a colonoscopy through the stoma revealed active bleeding from what appeared to be submucosal colonic varices. The patient continued to experience large volumes of blood loss and became more hemodynamically unstable. Cross sectional imaging showed colonic varices being fed by a branch of the inferior mesenteric vein. The patient underwent TIPS followed by Amplatzer plug embolization of the branch of the interior mesenteric vein that was feeding the colonic stomal varices. The patient’s bleeding was stopped by the combination of these therapeutic modalities and he recovered without complication.

The current standard of care for treatment of such varices is with either (1) local therapy with ligation or sclerotherapy, (2) surgical interventions such as stomal manipulation or vessel shunting, either transhepatic or portosystemic to reduce portal pressures, or (3) liver transplantation. Our patient required an unusual combination of TIPS and Amplatzer plug embolization to control his massive hemorrhage. This combination of therapies has been shown effective for the management of select cases of esophageal or gastric variceal bleeding; however, our case demonstrates that the application of the TIPS plus Amplatzer plug embolization can be applied more broadly to the rare scenario of colonic stomal varices.

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Apr 5th, 8:00 AM Apr 5th, 12:00 PM

Life threatening GI bleeding from stomal varices managed by TIPS and Amplatzer plug embolization

Clinch Mtn. Room 215

Stomal varices are a rare phenomenon that can infrequently develop in patients with enterostomies and portal hypertension. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding from stomal varices can be life threatening and is often a diagnostic challenge. We present a case of severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage from stomal varices requiring emergent intervention with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and plug embolization.

A 61 year old male patient with a history of colorectal adenocarcinoma status post chemotherapy, radiation, along with low anterior colon resection with ostomy creation presented with a one day history of sudden onset of bright red blood from his colostomy site. He had a known history of decompensated cirrhosis related to hepatitis C and alcohol abuse. On arrival, the patient was tachycardic with borderline low blood pressure with evidence of bright red bleeding from his ostomy site. After initial resuscitation, a colonoscopy through the stoma revealed active bleeding from what appeared to be submucosal colonic varices. The patient continued to experience large volumes of blood loss and became more hemodynamically unstable. Cross sectional imaging showed colonic varices being fed by a branch of the inferior mesenteric vein. The patient underwent TIPS followed by Amplatzer plug embolization of the branch of the interior mesenteric vein that was feeding the colonic stomal varices. The patient’s bleeding was stopped by the combination of these therapeutic modalities and he recovered without complication.

The current standard of care for treatment of such varices is with either (1) local therapy with ligation or sclerotherapy, (2) surgical interventions such as stomal manipulation or vessel shunting, either transhepatic or portosystemic to reduce portal pressures, or (3) liver transplantation. Our patient required an unusual combination of TIPS and Amplatzer plug embolization to control his massive hemorrhage. This combination of therapies has been shown effective for the management of select cases of esophageal or gastric variceal bleeding; however, our case demonstrates that the application of the TIPS plus Amplatzer plug embolization can be applied more broadly to the rare scenario of colonic stomal varices.