Project Title

Oxidative Stress Susceptibility of Oligodendrocytes in Major Depressive Disorder is Widespread in the Brain

Authors' Affiliations

Jacob R. Coulthard1, Wesley Ongtengco2, Jacob Garst3, Dr. Michelle J. Chandley2, Hui Wang-Heaton4, and Dr. Gregory A. Ordway5 1 Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 2 Department of Health Sciences, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 3 Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 4 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 5 Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN

Location

Ballroom

Start Date

4-5-2018 8:00 AM

End Date

4-5-2018 12:00 PM

Poster Number

36

Name of Project's Faculty Sponsor

Gregory A. Ordway

Faculty Sponsor's Department

Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Type

Poster: Competitive

Classification of First Author

Undergraduate Student

Project's Category

Biomedical and Health Sciences

Abstract Text

Over 10 million people are affected by major depressive disorder (MDD) in the U.S. annually. Unfortunately, about 1/3 of these people do not achieve adequate remission of symptoms with current antidepressant drugs. It is expected that an improved understanding of the pathobiology of depression will result in the development of more effective antidepressant treatments. Research by this lab in recent years has provided evidence of elevated DNA damage in brain white matter in MDD, discovered by studying brain tissues from human brain donors that had an active diagnosis of MDD at the time of death and age-matched control donors who had no psychiatric illness. Accompanying this DNA damage was an elevation of gene expression of DNA base excision repair enzymes in white matter oligodendrocytes, a major cell type in brain white matter. In addition, gene expression of antioxidant genes in these oligodendrocytes was significantly lower in MDD than in control donors, suggesting that these cells were especially susceptible to the damaging effects of oxidative stress in MDD. This initial data was generated by measuring gene expressions in oligodendrocytes captured from two specific regions of white matter in the brain, the frontal cortex, and amygdala. In the present study, we designed experiments to determine whether these effects are found in oligodendrocytes in other areas of the brain in MDD and to determine whether another cell type in the brain, neurons, are similarly affected. Towards these aims, oligodendrocytes from two other brain regions (occipital cortical white matter and brainstem locus coeruleus) were captured by laser microdissection from MDD and control donors. In addition, CA1 pyramidal neurons were captured from the anterior hippocampus of MDD and control donors. We chose to specifically study hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons because these neurons are normally sensitive to oxidative stress, and reasoned that these cells would be among brain neurons most likely affected by conditions of elevated oxidative stress in MDD. Approximately 500 cells were captured from each brain area using immunohistochemically-guided laser capture microdissection. RNA isolated from these cells was converted to cDNA by reverse transcription and subjected to quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Statistically significant reductions in antioxidant gene expression was observed in oligodendrocytes from MDD donors as compared to control donors regardless of the brain area from which the cells were captured. In contrast, no significant changes in antioxidant gene expression were observed in CA1 pyramidal neurons from MDD donors. Additionally in contrast to findings in oligodendrocytes, levels of gene expression of the DNA repair enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from MDD donors was similar to that from control donors. These findings demonstrate that pathological DNA damage and repair mechanisms occur in brain oligodendrocytes throughout the brain, and similar mechanisms do not appear to affect hippocampal neurons. A better understanding of the cellular systems engaged by oxidative damage to oligodendrocytes in MDD has the potential to lead to the identification of unique targets for the development of novel antidepressant drugs.

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Apr 5th, 8:00 AM Apr 5th, 12:00 PM

Oxidative Stress Susceptibility of Oligodendrocytes in Major Depressive Disorder is Widespread in the Brain

Ballroom

Over 10 million people are affected by major depressive disorder (MDD) in the U.S. annually. Unfortunately, about 1/3 of these people do not achieve adequate remission of symptoms with current antidepressant drugs. It is expected that an improved understanding of the pathobiology of depression will result in the development of more effective antidepressant treatments. Research by this lab in recent years has provided evidence of elevated DNA damage in brain white matter in MDD, discovered by studying brain tissues from human brain donors that had an active diagnosis of MDD at the time of death and age-matched control donors who had no psychiatric illness. Accompanying this DNA damage was an elevation of gene expression of DNA base excision repair enzymes in white matter oligodendrocytes, a major cell type in brain white matter. In addition, gene expression of antioxidant genes in these oligodendrocytes was significantly lower in MDD than in control donors, suggesting that these cells were especially susceptible to the damaging effects of oxidative stress in MDD. This initial data was generated by measuring gene expressions in oligodendrocytes captured from two specific regions of white matter in the brain, the frontal cortex, and amygdala. In the present study, we designed experiments to determine whether these effects are found in oligodendrocytes in other areas of the brain in MDD and to determine whether another cell type in the brain, neurons, are similarly affected. Towards these aims, oligodendrocytes from two other brain regions (occipital cortical white matter and brainstem locus coeruleus) were captured by laser microdissection from MDD and control donors. In addition, CA1 pyramidal neurons were captured from the anterior hippocampus of MDD and control donors. We chose to specifically study hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons because these neurons are normally sensitive to oxidative stress, and reasoned that these cells would be among brain neurons most likely affected by conditions of elevated oxidative stress in MDD. Approximately 500 cells were captured from each brain area using immunohistochemically-guided laser capture microdissection. RNA isolated from these cells was converted to cDNA by reverse transcription and subjected to quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Statistically significant reductions in antioxidant gene expression was observed in oligodendrocytes from MDD donors as compared to control donors regardless of the brain area from which the cells were captured. In contrast, no significant changes in antioxidant gene expression were observed in CA1 pyramidal neurons from MDD donors. Additionally in contrast to findings in oligodendrocytes, levels of gene expression of the DNA repair enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from MDD donors was similar to that from control donors. These findings demonstrate that pathological DNA damage and repair mechanisms occur in brain oligodendrocytes throughout the brain, and similar mechanisms do not appear to affect hippocampal neurons. A better understanding of the cellular systems engaged by oxidative damage to oligodendrocytes in MDD has the potential to lead to the identification of unique targets for the development of novel antidepressant drugs.