Project Title

Pancreatic Pseudocyst Complicated by Hemorrhage into the Peritoneal Cavity and Spleen

Authors' Affiliations

(1) Muhammad Khalid MD, (1) Majd Kanaa MD, Ghulam Murtaza MD (1), Jack Stanley Goldstein MD (1) 1: Department of Internal Medicine, Quillen College of Medicine East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN

Location

Clinch Mtn. Room 215

Start Date

4-5-2018 8:00 AM

End Date

4-5-2018 12:00 PM

Poster Number

147

Name of Project's Faculty Sponsor

Jack Stanley Goldstein

Faculty Sponsor's Department

Internal Medicine

Type

Poster: Competitive

Classification of First Author

Medical Resident or Clinical Fellow

Project's Category

Biomedical Case Study

Abstract Text

Pancreatic pseudocysts are a complication of acute or chronic pancreatitis or result from blunt trauma to the pancreas. It is a localized fluid collection around the pancreas surrounded by a wall of fibrous tissue or inflammation. We present a case of a 56-years old male who presented with abdominal pain and sepsis due to spontaneous rupture of the hemorrhagic pancreatic cyst into the peritoneal cavity and spleen.

56-years old male with medical history of gastroesophageal reflux disease presented with epigastric and left upper quadrant intermittent abdominal pain. Patient denied fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting, family history of pancreatic cancer, anticoagulation use, gallstones, alcohol intake and prior history of pancreatitis. On admission, vitals were B.P 137/82, Pulse 102, RR 16, O2 saturation 92% on room air. Physical exam was significant for left upper quadrant and epigastric tenderness. Labs were lipase 230, amylase 112, lactate 0.7, wbc 7.0, hemoglobin of 15.2 and triglyceride levels were 189mg/dl. Computed tomography (CT) abdomen showed acute pancreatitis and a 4.5 x 4.4 x 2.8 cm cystic lesion between the tail of the pancreas and splenic hilum. Ultrasound of the abdomen showed normal gallbladder with no evidence of biliary ductal dilatation. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) abdomen showed 4.3 cm walled off, possibly hemorrhagic fluid collection, between the spleen and the pancreas. Patient had normal CA-19 level. Patient was evaluated by general surgery who recommended conservative management with repeat CT in 6 weeks with possible pancreatectomy and removal of mass if not resolved. Patient was readmitted 3 days after discharge with worsening abdominal pain and sepsis. Physical exam was significant for epigastric and left upper quadrant tenderness without guarding or rebound. Labs showed lactate 3.4, wbc 11.3, hgb 12.1 and lipase 600. Repeat CT scan showed rupture of the hemorrhagic pancreatic cyst with possible extravasation and enlarged spleen with perisplenic and subcapsular blood represent splenic infarcts. Repeat MRCP confirmed CT findings. Patient was planned for splenectomy and distal pancreatectomy.

Most pancreatic pseudocysts resolve spontaneously [1]. Bleeding, infection, rupture, pseudoaneurysm, splenic and biliary complications and portal hypertension are some of the complications if left untreated. Hemorrhage into the pancreatic pseudocyst is a rare complication with a reported incidence of 10-30% with a high mortality rate (40%). Bleeding most commonly involves splenic artery (30–50%), followed by the gastroduodenal artery (17%) and pancreaticoduodenal arteries (11%) [2]. Diagnosis is made by ultrasound, CT scan, MRI or ERCP. Treatment involves either percutaneous drainage, or endoscopic or surgical approach. Spontaneous rupture into the peritoneal cavity is a rare life threatening complication requiring immediate surgical intervention. This case highlights the early recognition of complications of ruptured pancreatic pseudocyst to prevent fatal consequences.

References:

1: Lerch MM, Stier A, Wahnschaffe U, Mayerle J: Pancreatic Pseudocysts: Observation, Endoscopic Drainage, or Resection. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 2009, 106:614-621.10.3238/arztebl.2009.0614.

2: Novacic K1, Vidjak V, Suknaic S, Skopljanac A: Embolization of a large pancreatic pseudoaneurysm converted from pseudocyst (hemorrhagic pseudocyst). JOP 2008, 9:317-21. joplink.net/prev/200805/13.html

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Apr 5th, 8:00 AM Apr 5th, 12:00 PM

Pancreatic Pseudocyst Complicated by Hemorrhage into the Peritoneal Cavity and Spleen

Clinch Mtn. Room 215

Pancreatic pseudocysts are a complication of acute or chronic pancreatitis or result from blunt trauma to the pancreas. It is a localized fluid collection around the pancreas surrounded by a wall of fibrous tissue or inflammation. We present a case of a 56-years old male who presented with abdominal pain and sepsis due to spontaneous rupture of the hemorrhagic pancreatic cyst into the peritoneal cavity and spleen.

56-years old male with medical history of gastroesophageal reflux disease presented with epigastric and left upper quadrant intermittent abdominal pain. Patient denied fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting, family history of pancreatic cancer, anticoagulation use, gallstones, alcohol intake and prior history of pancreatitis. On admission, vitals were B.P 137/82, Pulse 102, RR 16, O2 saturation 92% on room air. Physical exam was significant for left upper quadrant and epigastric tenderness. Labs were lipase 230, amylase 112, lactate 0.7, wbc 7.0, hemoglobin of 15.2 and triglyceride levels were 189mg/dl. Computed tomography (CT) abdomen showed acute pancreatitis and a 4.5 x 4.4 x 2.8 cm cystic lesion between the tail of the pancreas and splenic hilum. Ultrasound of the abdomen showed normal gallbladder with no evidence of biliary ductal dilatation. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) abdomen showed 4.3 cm walled off, possibly hemorrhagic fluid collection, between the spleen and the pancreas. Patient had normal CA-19 level. Patient was evaluated by general surgery who recommended conservative management with repeat CT in 6 weeks with possible pancreatectomy and removal of mass if not resolved. Patient was readmitted 3 days after discharge with worsening abdominal pain and sepsis. Physical exam was significant for epigastric and left upper quadrant tenderness without guarding or rebound. Labs showed lactate 3.4, wbc 11.3, hgb 12.1 and lipase 600. Repeat CT scan showed rupture of the hemorrhagic pancreatic cyst with possible extravasation and enlarged spleen with perisplenic and subcapsular blood represent splenic infarcts. Repeat MRCP confirmed CT findings. Patient was planned for splenectomy and distal pancreatectomy.

Most pancreatic pseudocysts resolve spontaneously [1]. Bleeding, infection, rupture, pseudoaneurysm, splenic and biliary complications and portal hypertension are some of the complications if left untreated. Hemorrhage into the pancreatic pseudocyst is a rare complication with a reported incidence of 10-30% with a high mortality rate (40%). Bleeding most commonly involves splenic artery (30–50%), followed by the gastroduodenal artery (17%) and pancreaticoduodenal arteries (11%) [2]. Diagnosis is made by ultrasound, CT scan, MRI or ERCP. Treatment involves either percutaneous drainage, or endoscopic or surgical approach. Spontaneous rupture into the peritoneal cavity is a rare life threatening complication requiring immediate surgical intervention. This case highlights the early recognition of complications of ruptured pancreatic pseudocyst to prevent fatal consequences.

References:

1: Lerch MM, Stier A, Wahnschaffe U, Mayerle J: Pancreatic Pseudocysts: Observation, Endoscopic Drainage, or Resection. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 2009, 106:614-621.10.3238/arztebl.2009.0614.

2: Novacic K1, Vidjak V, Suknaic S, Skopljanac A: Embolization of a large pancreatic pseudoaneurysm converted from pseudocyst (hemorrhagic pseudocyst). JOP 2008, 9:317-21. joplink.net/prev/200805/13.html