Project Title

PHARMACOKINETICS OF SYNTHETIC CATHINONES FOUND IN "BATH SALTS" IN MOUSE BRAIN AND PLASMA USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - MASS SPECTROMETRY

Authors' Affiliations

Shannon Schreiner, J. Brooke Bouldin, Emily Perez, Stacy D. Brown, Ph.D., and Brooks B. Pond, Ph.D. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, East Tennessee State University Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy

Location

Ballroom

Start Date

4-5-2018 8:00 AM

End Date

4-5-2018 12:00 PM

Poster Number

93

Name of Project's Faculty Sponsor

Dr. Brooks B. Pond

Faculty Sponsor's Department

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Type

Poster: Competitive

Classification of First Author

Pharmacy Student

Project's Category

Biomedical and Health Sciences

Abstract Text

“Bath salts” and “plant food”, which were legally marketed synthetic cathinones, have a high potential for abuse. Several recent studies indicate that 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), two common drugs of this type, have similar pharmacology to controlled psychostimulants such as cocaine, methamphetamine, and methylphenidate. MDPV acts as a norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake inhibitor via blockade of their transporters (DAT and NET), whereas methylone is a substrate for the NE, DA, and serotonin (5-HT) transporters, increasing the non-vesicular release of these monoamines. Both drugs cause significant increases in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the cleft. Increases in DA are associated with euphoric effects and thus promote drug abuse and addiction, hence the high addiction potential of MDPV and methylone. Indeed, MDPV is 50 times more potent at the DAT and 10 times more potent at the NET than cocaine. Here, we examined the pharmacokinetics of MDPV and methylone in the brain and plasma, following intraperitoneal injection in mice. These types of injections have similar pharmacokinetics to insufflation (snorting), which is the manner in which MDPV and methylone are commonly abused. Briefly, adolescent male Swiss-Webster mice were injected intraperitoneally with either 10 mg/kg MDPV or 10 mg/kg methylone, and brains and plasma were collected at the following time points: 1, 10, 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. Samples were then flash-frozen and stored at -70°C until analysis. Samples were spiked with deuterium-labeled MDPV or methylone (internal standards), and the drugs were extracted from tissue using a previously published solid phase extraction method. Chromatographic separation of the compounds was achieved using a HILIC column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and 5 mM ammonium formate at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Mass spectrometric detection utilized a Shimadzu IT-TOF system with the electrospray source running in positive mode. Data acquisition utilized a direct MS-MS method using a precursor ion of 276.3 m/z for MDPV and methylone. The calibration curve ranged from 100 ng/ml to 0.1 ng/ml. These conditions allowed for a lower limit of detection (LLOD) of less than or equal to 1 ng/mL and a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of less than or equal to 5 ng/mL for MDPV and methylone. MDPV and methylone peak concentrations in plasma were seen immediately at 1 min, while brain concentrations peaked at 15 min; however, MDPV reached higher concentrations in the brain the methylone. This is consistent with MDPV’s higher lipophilicity (logP value). In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic profile of these drugs reflects a quick uptake and distribution of the drugs to the brain, followed by the quick distribution out of the brain, which likely contributes to the binge use of these drugs.

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Apr 5th, 8:00 AM Apr 5th, 12:00 PM

PHARMACOKINETICS OF SYNTHETIC CATHINONES FOUND IN "BATH SALTS" IN MOUSE BRAIN AND PLASMA USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - MASS SPECTROMETRY

Ballroom

“Bath salts” and “plant food”, which were legally marketed synthetic cathinones, have a high potential for abuse. Several recent studies indicate that 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), two common drugs of this type, have similar pharmacology to controlled psychostimulants such as cocaine, methamphetamine, and methylphenidate. MDPV acts as a norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake inhibitor via blockade of their transporters (DAT and NET), whereas methylone is a substrate for the NE, DA, and serotonin (5-HT) transporters, increasing the non-vesicular release of these monoamines. Both drugs cause significant increases in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the cleft. Increases in DA are associated with euphoric effects and thus promote drug abuse and addiction, hence the high addiction potential of MDPV and methylone. Indeed, MDPV is 50 times more potent at the DAT and 10 times more potent at the NET than cocaine. Here, we examined the pharmacokinetics of MDPV and methylone in the brain and plasma, following intraperitoneal injection in mice. These types of injections have similar pharmacokinetics to insufflation (snorting), which is the manner in which MDPV and methylone are commonly abused. Briefly, adolescent male Swiss-Webster mice were injected intraperitoneally with either 10 mg/kg MDPV or 10 mg/kg methylone, and brains and plasma were collected at the following time points: 1, 10, 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. Samples were then flash-frozen and stored at -70°C until analysis. Samples were spiked with deuterium-labeled MDPV or methylone (internal standards), and the drugs were extracted from tissue using a previously published solid phase extraction method. Chromatographic separation of the compounds was achieved using a HILIC column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and 5 mM ammonium formate at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Mass spectrometric detection utilized a Shimadzu IT-TOF system with the electrospray source running in positive mode. Data acquisition utilized a direct MS-MS method using a precursor ion of 276.3 m/z for MDPV and methylone. The calibration curve ranged from 100 ng/ml to 0.1 ng/ml. These conditions allowed for a lower limit of detection (LLOD) of less than or equal to 1 ng/mL and a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of less than or equal to 5 ng/mL for MDPV and methylone. MDPV and methylone peak concentrations in plasma were seen immediately at 1 min, while brain concentrations peaked at 15 min; however, MDPV reached higher concentrations in the brain the methylone. This is consistent with MDPV’s higher lipophilicity (logP value). In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic profile of these drugs reflects a quick uptake and distribution of the drugs to the brain, followed by the quick distribution out of the brain, which likely contributes to the binge use of these drugs.