Authors' Affiliations

Heath W. Shelton1 and Dr. Russell W. Brown2 1 Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN. 2 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN.

Location

Ballroom

Start Date

4-5-2018 8:00 AM

End Date

4-5-2018 12:00 PM

Poster Number

85

Name of Project's Faculty Sponsor

Dr. Russell W. Brown

Faculty Sponsor's Department

Department of Biomedical Sciences

Type

Poster: Competitive

Classification of First Author

Graduate Student-Master’s

Project's Category

Biomedical and Health Sciences

Abstract Text

Introduction: Current medical treatment for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCHZ) primarily relies on the inhibition of the dopamine D2 receptor that has been shown to be supersensitive in these patients. Treatment occurs through the use of antipsychotic medication which leads to a number of debilitating dose-dependent side effects, such as weight gain, agranulocytosis, and seizures. Patients diagnosed with SCHZ have also been shown to have increased inflammation in their central nervous system (CNS), particularly within specific brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. This is in large part due to the interaction between a pro-inflammatory cytokine called tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa) and microglia, which are resident CNS defense cells. TNFa is a cell-signaling protein, regulates a variety of immune cells, and is involved in the acute phase reaction of inflammation. Upon activation by TNFa secretion, microglial cells switch from being anti-inflammatory (M2) to pro-inflammatory (M1), thereby resulting in neuroinflammation as well as synaptic loss and neuronal death. In this project, we hypothesized oral administration through the diet of a novel TNFa modulator (PD2024) developed by P2D Biosciences, Inc. (Cincinnati, OH) would significantly reduce microglia activation in rats neonatally treated with Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Methods and Results: To test our hypothesis, four groups (Neonatal Poly I:C/TNFa, Neonatal Poly I:C/Control, Neonatal Saline/TNFa, and Neonatal Saline/Control) were intraperitoneally injected with either poly I:C or saline during postnatal days (P)5-7. Poly I:C is an immunostimulant that mimics neonatal infection in humans, which also has been found to be a factor for the development of SCHZ later in life. Between days (P)30-(P)60, the Neonatal Poly I:C/TNFa and Neonatal Saline/TNFa groups were orally administered PD2024 through the diet. After (P)60, brain tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and confocal microscopy. Immunohistochemistry was used to label microglial cells in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus with a green fluorescent dye attached to Iba1, a protein that specifically binds to these cells. Upon completion of IHC, tissue was evaluated using a confocal microscope and then analyzed with NIH ImageJ software. Analysis parameters included cell count, sampled cell body fluorescence, and overall image fluorescence. The results obtained showed a significant decrease in microglia activation for the Poly I:C/TNFa group when compared to the Poly I:C/Control group, as well as similarities in activation levels with the Saline/Control group. These results were demonstrated in both sampled cell body fluorescence and overall image fluorescence measurements. Conclusion: This data supports the hypothesis that PD2024 is successful in reducing microglia activation through the modulation of TNFa. Therefore, treatment with a TNFa modulator such as PD2024 alongside of current antipsychotic medication could mediate neuroinflammation and reduce the dose-dependent side effects. This approach could be a promising therapeutic treatment option for those diagnosed with schizophrenia, as well as potentially for other neurocognitive and behavioral disorders.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Share

COinS
 
Apr 5th, 8:00 AM Apr 5th, 12:00 PM

INHIBITION OF TNF-ALPHA DECREASES MICROGLIA ACTIVATION IN RATS NEONATALLY TREATED WITH POLY I:C

Ballroom

Introduction: Current medical treatment for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCHZ) primarily relies on the inhibition of the dopamine D2 receptor that has been shown to be supersensitive in these patients. Treatment occurs through the use of antipsychotic medication which leads to a number of debilitating dose-dependent side effects, such as weight gain, agranulocytosis, and seizures. Patients diagnosed with SCHZ have also been shown to have increased inflammation in their central nervous system (CNS), particularly within specific brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. This is in large part due to the interaction between a pro-inflammatory cytokine called tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa) and microglia, which are resident CNS defense cells. TNFa is a cell-signaling protein, regulates a variety of immune cells, and is involved in the acute phase reaction of inflammation. Upon activation by TNFa secretion, microglial cells switch from being anti-inflammatory (M2) to pro-inflammatory (M1), thereby resulting in neuroinflammation as well as synaptic loss and neuronal death. In this project, we hypothesized oral administration through the diet of a novel TNFa modulator (PD2024) developed by P2D Biosciences, Inc. (Cincinnati, OH) would significantly reduce microglia activation in rats neonatally treated with Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Methods and Results: To test our hypothesis, four groups (Neonatal Poly I:C/TNFa, Neonatal Poly I:C/Control, Neonatal Saline/TNFa, and Neonatal Saline/Control) were intraperitoneally injected with either poly I:C or saline during postnatal days (P)5-7. Poly I:C is an immunostimulant that mimics neonatal infection in humans, which also has been found to be a factor for the development of SCHZ later in life. Between days (P)30-(P)60, the Neonatal Poly I:C/TNFa and Neonatal Saline/TNFa groups were orally administered PD2024 through the diet. After (P)60, brain tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and confocal microscopy. Immunohistochemistry was used to label microglial cells in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus with a green fluorescent dye attached to Iba1, a protein that specifically binds to these cells. Upon completion of IHC, tissue was evaluated using a confocal microscope and then analyzed with NIH ImageJ software. Analysis parameters included cell count, sampled cell body fluorescence, and overall image fluorescence. The results obtained showed a significant decrease in microglia activation for the Poly I:C/TNFa group when compared to the Poly I:C/Control group, as well as similarities in activation levels with the Saline/Control group. These results were demonstrated in both sampled cell body fluorescence and overall image fluorescence measurements. Conclusion: This data supports the hypothesis that PD2024 is successful in reducing microglia activation through the modulation of TNFa. Therefore, treatment with a TNFa modulator such as PD2024 alongside of current antipsychotic medication could mediate neuroinflammation and reduce the dose-dependent side effects. This approach could be a promising therapeutic treatment option for those diagnosed with schizophrenia, as well as potentially for other neurocognitive and behavioral disorders.