Project Title

BURKITT’S LYMPHOMA MASQUERADING AS ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS AND VAGINAL BLEEDING

Authors' Affiliations

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine Department of Pathology Quillen College of Medicine, ETSU, Johnson City TN

Location

Ballroom

Start Date

4-5-2018 8:00 AM

End Date

4-5-2018 12:00 PM

Poster Number

53

Name of Project's Faculty Sponsor

East Tenessee State University

Faculty Sponsor's Department

Oncology

Type

Poster: Non-Competitive

Classification of First Author

Undergraduate Student

Project's Category

Biomedical and Health Sciences

Abstract Text

Burkitt lymphoma is a highly aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by the translocation t(8,14) and deregulation of the MYC gene on chromosome 8. The endemic (African) form presents classically as an expanding mass in the jaw. The nonendemic (European/North American) form often presents with an abdominal mass. We present an interesting case of Burkitt’s Lymphoma with atypical features. A thirty-five-year-old lady with no significant medical history presented to the hospital with a three week complaint of vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain/cramps associated with night sweats and chills. She underwent gynecologic workup with an ultrasound revealing endometrial thickening followed by a hysteroscopic Dilatation and Curettage procedure. Laboratory workup revealed direct hyperbilirubinemia and elevated liver enzymes. MRCP showed gallbladder wall thickening but no biliary obstruction. A diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis was considered and she underwent a laproscopic cholecystectomy and liver biopsy. Her initial complete blood count revealed mild leukocytosis. Follow up lab work revealed worsening leukocytosis and a hematology consultation was sought. A peak WBC of 81,000 with peripheral blood blasts as high as 31% was noted. Peripheral smear exam revealed moderate sized immature wbc precursors/blasts with high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. Further hematological work up including bone marrow aspirate and biopsy was expedited. Pathology resulted positive for Burkitt's lymphoma/leukemia, positive molecular studies, t(8,14), involving bone marrow, gallbladder, liver and endometrium. Patient was emergently treated with dexamethasone and nitrogen mustard as elevated bilirubin levels precluded standard treatment. She was started on Rituxan as this neoplasm is a CD 20+ B cell malignancy but could not tolerate it. HyperCVAD multi-agent chemotherapy was subsequently initiated along with intrathecal chemotherapy (cytarabine and methotrexate). CSF cytology remained negative for lymphoma. Patient’s clinical condition has improved after 2 cycles of chemotherapy and she is currently receiving on going therapy. Burkitt’s lymphoma is one of the most aggressive neoplasms with a tumor doubling time of a few days. The usual presentation is with constitutional symptoms and adenopathy or a mass lesion, and sometimes may manifest solely in the peripheral circulation as an L3 variant of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hepatic parenchymal involvement is rare, but reported. Gallbladder involvement with endoluminal deposits is even rarer. Simultaneous hepatic, gallbladder, uterine, nodal and leukemic involvement at presentation is unique. Treatment is primarily with systemic chemotherapy and multi agent regimens effective in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and/or aggressive lymphomas have been used successfully in this condition with a complete response rate of 80%-90% with a long-term survival rate of approximately 60%. Therapy is fraught with risks of fatal tumor lysis syndrome, pancytopenia, infection/sepsis, and bleeding. Potential progression/relapse in the CNS with the CSF serving as a sanctuary site has been well documented necessitating prophylactic intra thecal chemotherapy administration as in our patient. Aggressive biology of this disease required urgent treatment, as delay in institution of combination chemotherapy could result in poor outcome. This case highlights the need to maintain an open mind while evaluating apparently routine symptoms and the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment of a hematologic-oncologic emergency.

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Apr 5th, 8:00 AM Apr 5th, 12:00 PM

BURKITT’S LYMPHOMA MASQUERADING AS ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS AND VAGINAL BLEEDING

Ballroom

Burkitt lymphoma is a highly aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by the translocation t(8,14) and deregulation of the MYC gene on chromosome 8. The endemic (African) form presents classically as an expanding mass in the jaw. The nonendemic (European/North American) form often presents with an abdominal mass. We present an interesting case of Burkitt’s Lymphoma with atypical features. A thirty-five-year-old lady with no significant medical history presented to the hospital with a three week complaint of vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain/cramps associated with night sweats and chills. She underwent gynecologic workup with an ultrasound revealing endometrial thickening followed by a hysteroscopic Dilatation and Curettage procedure. Laboratory workup revealed direct hyperbilirubinemia and elevated liver enzymes. MRCP showed gallbladder wall thickening but no biliary obstruction. A diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis was considered and she underwent a laproscopic cholecystectomy and liver biopsy. Her initial complete blood count revealed mild leukocytosis. Follow up lab work revealed worsening leukocytosis and a hematology consultation was sought. A peak WBC of 81,000 with peripheral blood blasts as high as 31% was noted. Peripheral smear exam revealed moderate sized immature wbc precursors/blasts with high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. Further hematological work up including bone marrow aspirate and biopsy was expedited. Pathology resulted positive for Burkitt's lymphoma/leukemia, positive molecular studies, t(8,14), involving bone marrow, gallbladder, liver and endometrium. Patient was emergently treated with dexamethasone and nitrogen mustard as elevated bilirubin levels precluded standard treatment. She was started on Rituxan as this neoplasm is a CD 20+ B cell malignancy but could not tolerate it. HyperCVAD multi-agent chemotherapy was subsequently initiated along with intrathecal chemotherapy (cytarabine and methotrexate). CSF cytology remained negative for lymphoma. Patient’s clinical condition has improved after 2 cycles of chemotherapy and she is currently receiving on going therapy. Burkitt’s lymphoma is one of the most aggressive neoplasms with a tumor doubling time of a few days. The usual presentation is with constitutional symptoms and adenopathy or a mass lesion, and sometimes may manifest solely in the peripheral circulation as an L3 variant of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hepatic parenchymal involvement is rare, but reported. Gallbladder involvement with endoluminal deposits is even rarer. Simultaneous hepatic, gallbladder, uterine, nodal and leukemic involvement at presentation is unique. Treatment is primarily with systemic chemotherapy and multi agent regimens effective in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and/or aggressive lymphomas have been used successfully in this condition with a complete response rate of 80%-90% with a long-term survival rate of approximately 60%. Therapy is fraught with risks of fatal tumor lysis syndrome, pancytopenia, infection/sepsis, and bleeding. Potential progression/relapse in the CNS with the CSF serving as a sanctuary site has been well documented necessitating prophylactic intra thecal chemotherapy administration as in our patient. Aggressive biology of this disease required urgent treatment, as delay in institution of combination chemotherapy could result in poor outcome. This case highlights the need to maintain an open mind while evaluating apparently routine symptoms and the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment of a hematologic-oncologic emergency.