Improving Expository Text Comprehension in Adolescent Spanish–English Bilingual Learners With Learning Disabilities Using a Graphic Organizer

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The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a graphic organizer for improving the expository text comprehension of adolescent Spanish–English bilingual students with learning disabilities. Students included two females and one male. Using a multiple baseline single case design, students were taught to create a funnel map graphic organizer for 10 descriptive text passages. Students’ performance was assessed on their ability to correctly create the funnel map (criterion variable) and to comprehend expository passages during baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases. Each participant learned to create an accurate funnel map within four sessions. Text comprehension scores began to increase within three sessions. Results showed the positive effect of using the funnel map for improving comprehension of expository texts. Individual TAU effect sizes (.81–.92) and overall TAU-U effect sizes (.86) and a Between Case-Standardized Mean Difference (BC-SMD) of 1.87 showed the intervention to be highly effective.