CUMAC-CAM: A Channel Allocation Aware MAC Protocol for Addressing Triple Hidden Terminal Problems in Multi-Channel UWSNs

Document Type


Publication Date



In this paper, a cooperative underwater multi-channel MAC (CUMAC) protocol has been proposed with both delay mapping and channel allocation assessment in order to improve network performance and handle triple hidden terminal (THT) problems in underwater sensor networks. A novel channel allocation matrix (CAM) was developed for estimating propagation delay and increasing utilization of channel. In the proposed scheme, every node maintains a database for delay mapping, based on which the sender runs a scheduling algorithm prior to transmitting any data. This delay mapping database assists a node in predicting packet collision probability. The overall objectives are—first, to increase the rate of successful transmission through mitigation of THT problems in multi-channel underwater sensor networks; and second, to increase channel utilization leveraging the database of delay mapping and channel allocation assessment. Results from performance evaluation demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed CUMAC-CAM protocol in terms of packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay, network throughput, collision probability, packet loss ratio and fairness index compared to the contemporary CUMAC protocol and RTS/CTS based multi-channel MAC protocols.